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ICOC 14: The Concluding Show and Tell

Posted in Uncategorized on July 3, 2018 by rjohn

The concluding sessions of the ICOC’s held in the U.S. have been sumptuous show and tells.  ICOC 14 ended this way, too.

Arriving early, I encountered the Textile Museum’s Education Curator, Tom Goehner, prepared to give whatever support was required.

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The Myers Room gradually filled.

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Wendel Swan, who always facilitates these ending sessions, did so with this one, too.

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I had arranged with Wendel to make an initial presentation. 

I have had, for years, a fragment of Central Asian ikat that I bought from Jim Blackmon.  I asked Melissa Keshishian to mount it for me.  She said that the material is so thin that, if she mounted it on a black background, its colors washed out, and so she had mounted it on a red ground.  This is how the mounted piece looks.

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This piece was part of a robe, the ikat portion bordered by a yellow-ground edging that is not ikat.  As Melissa indicated, the ikat fabric is so thin that one wonders how one could actually wear it as a robe.

Most ikats seem to have red wefts, but this fragment has blue wefts, indicating that it may be of a particular group.

I said that I have shown this ikat fragment to Elena Tsareva, before, and that she has said publicly, and repeatedly, that she thinks it is the oldest item of Central Asian ikat that she has seen.

Well, we know Elena’s work and her presentation, here at ICOC 14, was a virtuoso performance, that many of us are anxious to have published.  I thought this might be the right occasion for recognizing her work, and I said, that, although this piece had been on the wall next to my computer for years and that I had enjoyed looking at it every day, it seemed to me that it should go now to reside with someone who could appreciate it more than I could…and I handed it to her.

Elena said that she was, positively shocked, at this gift, but then spoke to the piece.

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She said that the oldest ikats known are from Yemen in the 8th century.  These pieces have narrow striped patterns.

How old is this Central Asian fragment?  She said “Next time.”

With this presentation made, the show and tell session began.

Click on most images, sometimes more than once, to get larger versions.

ST1

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The first piece was one brought by Sheridan Collins.  It comes with a story.  Sheridan bought it in Uzbekistan.  It was made in the 1980s by Turgunboy Mirzaahmedov, former designer at Yodgorlik Silk Factory in Marghilan, (estab. 1972), who was jailed for 15 years under Soviets, for making ikats as a cottage industry, when it was banned.  His son is currently running the factory.  

Irina Bogoslovskaya spoke to this piece.  

She had given a conference talk the day before on the development of Uzbek ikat and the Yodgorlik Silk Factory.  She called it a “unique” piece, “important” because of who the maker was, given his history. 

Here are some detail images of it.

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ST2

The second piece was an ikat coat, estimated by some as 1930s.  Elena thought earlier.  It was describes as “Russian,” made in a Samarkand style.  Less than 30 centimeter wide panels.  Indicates age.

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Details of ST2.

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ST4

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Cheri Hunter brought a silk, velvet, ikat coat.  A child’s garment, seemingly composed of unmatched pieces of silk velvet ikat. 

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Textiles were considered treasure in Central Asia and velvet was the most valuable of them.

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Details of ST4. Made during the 20th century, in the Middle Amu Dyra area, from Bokhara velvet.

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Embroidery on the sleeve was said to be possibly Middle Amu Dyra.

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The next piece was an Indonesian wrap-around, cotton, skirt, in ikat.  Amy Rispin said that she had bought it in Ireland.  She wanted to know more about it

ST5

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Details of ST5.  Comment in the room placed it in the Babu island part of the Indonesian archipelago.  Warp-faced.

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After publication, David Fraser wrote:

“I spotted one error (I think) that you might want to correct. ST5 looks to be a man’s cloth from the Indonesian island of Savu (not Babu, as cited in the text).
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“For your reference, I have attached the image of a Savu textile that Barbara Fraser and I purchased in the town of Badu, on the island of Savu, in 1991, and  gave to The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology in 2015.”
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ST6 was an amazing, Uzbek, sleeping blanket. with wonderful color.  Brought by Michael Seidman.

ST6

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It was woven in four strips and then sewn together.  Elena said that she wants a photo of this piece for a book she is doing on Uzbekistan carpets.

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Very traditional. Some question about whether it could be “Arab,” but consensus was that it’s Uzbek. One commentator said that this rug is typical of Samarkand.  Another seemed to suggest that the diamond devices were originally “turtles.”

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Said to be goathair warps.  These pieces are woven with symmetrical knots on raised warps only, on an open shed, and so the front color and patterns are not visible on the back.  The back is warp-faced.

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ST7

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ST7 is a full-pile Yomut mafrash face, with very soft wool.  Its owner said that it is the only Yomut piece he has seen, with an asymmetric knot open left, that has no other “eagle group” features ( Troost  is said to have published some others).  David Reuben’s study of Yomut weavings with asymmetric knots suggests that this is a rare piece.

Damaged hanging cords still attached.

Details of ST7.

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ST8

Next three piece were from the “Okbash Collection of Frances Plunkett.”  The first one a piece that appeared in Turkmen (1980).  Jon Thompson described it, there, as a Yomut “strut pole cover, ok bash.”  It is full pile.

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It was then in the Jerry Thompson collection.  Jerry said that he knew of no other in which the “syrga” element is used as the exclusive field device.  That device is frequently used as a border.  Comment in the room was that the “syrga” device likely descended from a tessellation.

Elena spoke to this piece, saying that she thinks its small size, and the fact that it in pile, make her doubt that it was made to be a tent pole cover, and that it is more likely a spindle bag, one of a pair. 

Frances, and some of the rest of us in the room, doubt whether this piece is too small to have been an ok bash.  I know that the opening on this piece (and that on some smaller ones) is large enough to admit one half of the strut poles of a usual-size Turkman trellis tent.  I have used Peter Andrew’s indications in his two-volume work on trellis tents (he gives the diameter of usual struts and how many would be in a usual Turkman tent) to demonstrate that the openings on some “smaller” pile pieces with ok bash-seeming formats, are large enough to admit a bundle of one half of the tents struts from a usual Turkman trellis tent.  Of course, this just demonstrates what is possible, not what a given piece in the ok bash-like format was made and used for.

Elena also said that she said that she prefers to place this piece in the “Caspian” group, articulated in her more recent efforts to break out parts of the Yomut group (see her treatment in her book on the Neville Kingston Collection).  She described the field motif as an “ear-ring” pattern.

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Elena said that ST9 is a ‘fantastic” piece and agreed that it has a size and structure appropriate to an ok bash. Elena said there are no studies of Turkman flatweaves and so she could not offer a clear attribution.

ST9

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She said maybe in the southern part of the Yomut region.  The white is cotton. Edges were added later.

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ST10

ST10 was another flatwoven ok bash, good color, with diamond forms arranged diagonally.

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Frances said that this piece was found unopened and that, in her experience, the tassels on unopened pieces of this sort seem to be original.

Now we moved to some Kyrgyz weavings: the “chavadan,” a variety of bag.  

ST11

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The owner of this piece said that he would be interested to hear from anyone who knew something about the origin of the small devices in the corner of the guls (detail below).

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In an email after, Elena was wiling to venture a bit about the device above:  “The pattern you ask about is rare, but very stable, which points to its old/ancient origin on the one side, and special meaning on the other. Never studied it specially, thus can’t say more than that. Will think about it, in particular, because the composition has definite relation to early Turkish carpets, which we see on Italian paintings, etc.”

ST12 was also said to be a Kyrgyz chavadan.  Comment in the room indicated that the designs, in ST12, include male and female symbols, and project notions of marriage.

ST12

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I remembered that Antipina, the Kyrgyz scholar, had said that the chavadan had “it’s place in the juk in the yurt, and continues even today in the modern household.” (O’Bannon, translation in 2000 of a 1962 Antipina text).  She said “the chavadan is put at the very bottom (ed. of the juk) with the decorative side facing out so that it may be seen. 

The juk was a place in either the tent, or a recessed area in a house, where the families “wealth” in textiles was displayed.

Here is a juk in a house.  This photo is in Antipina’s book in the section where she treats the chavadan. Pulgon is a village in Kyrgyzistan. It’s not clear from this photo whether chavadans are being used.  Something is at the bottom of the right and left stacks.

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In an email after, Elena said: “Chavadans: yes, their place in a yurt is at the juk bottom; in case the ‘foundation’ is made by a wooden chest — chavadan is put just above the chest — the images you sent show this very well.”

Trying to describe these chavadans resulted in a personal learning experience for me.  First, apparently, many non-Turkman groups made similar textiles.  The Uzbeks made “mapramach.” The Karakalpaks made “Qarshins.” There may be other instances.

The important thing I learned (and I may be one of the few in the world who did not know this) is that all of these varieties are box-shaped storage bags like those we see a lot made by Shahsavan and various Caucasians.  They are NOT envelope-type bags.  We see mostly the fronts and the sides for a familiar reason: dealers remove the less interesting parts of complete bags to make more salable textiles.

I have not found any images of complete Kyrgyz chavadans, but there are lots of images of parallel formats.  Here, for example, is an image of a complete Karakalpak “qarshin.”

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And Jozan.net currently has up this image of a complete napramach.

 

A complete Napramach from the Collection of Reinhard Blanck and Stefan Dobadka.

The front and the two sides are knotted, the back and the bottom are made of simple but strong woven cloth.

You can see and learn more on this link: https://www.jozan.net/the-napramach-–-an-ancient-suitcase-and-chest/ 

This site says that the word “chavadan” originates from the Russian word “chemodan” – a suitcase.  Duh!

Even the frequently encountered pieces with three joints make sense when we see that they are the sides and ends of a box form.

Napramach from the Collection of Reinhard Blanck and Stefan Dobadka.

As noted above, the Kyrgyz “chavadan” seems to be the same in form and use as the Uzbek “mapramach.”  The latter were sometimes woven, but also done in other ways (e.g. embroidered among the Lakai and others).

I have found one photo that seems to show mapramach being used in the way described above for the chavadan. 

The photo below shows a couple in the interior of an Kungrad Uzbek tent, again showing the use of the mapramach at the bottom of the juk.

(click for a larger version of this image)

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By permission of Anahita Gallery Photo Archive Photographer Belkis Khalilova Karmysheva.

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Maybe most folks knew, but the fact that chavadan, napramach and qarshin bags are box-forms was certainly not, previously, clear to me.

The next piece was a large fragment of a Central Asian tent band.

ST13

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It has been brought by Paul Ramsey,

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who said that it was full pile with an asymmetric knots open to the right, but that its structure is different from other Central Asian pieces he has seen.  He said that he bought it in Turkey about 15 years ago.

Elena said that it is Chodor.  Its green is typical.  Camel hair warps and wefts.  Some warp depression. 19th century. (John Wertime observed that we ought to consider more often than we do that materials in such a piece might include goat hair.)  

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Alberto Boralevi said that he has a similar piece that is later.

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Wendel Swan asked why such a piece would be made in full pile.

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Elena said, perhaps, the weaver did not know how to make such a band in mixed technique: weaving it in full pile is like weaving a little rug, nearly any weaver could do it.  Weaving bands in a mixed technique is more difficult (Aside: Marla Mallett and Josephine Powell believe that weaving mixed technique tent bands is difficult enough that they were likely woven by specialists.)

The next piece was a fragment of a Turkman chuval with a mina khani field design.  Middle Amu Dyra.  Bought, years ago, from Michael Craycraft.

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ST14

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Closer details.

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The opulent use of silk in this piece makes one wonder who would dare to cut it up, but, of course, we know that this happened frequently.

 The silk in this piece is insect-dyed, but there are also areas of insect-dyed wool.  Jurg Rageth found that insect-dyed wool in Turkmen pieces often had more than two plies and that this feature indicates a piece woven before 1850.

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Examination of the area in this fragment with the orange-ish shade (image above) suggests that this area is wool, dyed with cochineal.  The wool in this area also has more plies than does that in others.  Suggests that this piece was likely woven before 1850.  Elena said that it is “superb work” and agrees that it is early.

The next two pieces had been brought by Michael Rothberg.

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The first of these is the piece below.  It is so unusual that I’ve asked Michael for his description of it.

ST15

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Here are his comments:

Small audience rug? 2 ft 10 in x 2 ft 4 in; mid 19th century

Asymmetric knot (pulled left)  fine weave: 108 knots/sq in.

Weft: dark brown wool (2 shoots); warp: light & darker brown wool, twisted together (z spun)

Colors (10):  aubergine, light green (faded to teal), dark green, red, cobalt, pale yellow, mid-blue, peach, ivory, undyed brown.

Dense handle, not ‘floppy.”

Design: very unusual; bands with white cloud band “aksu” pattern; series of horizontal octagons with “C” motifs inside, plus other forms

Color palette and border treatment strongly suggests CHODOR tribe, but the knot is usually pulled right in old (proto) Chodor pieces. (Proto-Chodor, a term coined by Hans Sienknecht (??) refers to older, finely woven Chodors that have a different weave and color palette from the Chodor pieces dating from after 1875 or so).

Elena Tsareva mused that it might be from an “Eagle Group” source, but I don’t see it. The colors are completely different, and the design is not seen in “Eagle Group” pieces.

Further, this rug does not really have the dimensions or look of a chuval, despite its size.

The Chodor are known for one-of-a kind designs, as in their “prayer” rugs, so perhaps this weaver was just left handed?

No known similar examples. (Find one, please!)

My thanks to Michael for this fulsome comment.

Details of ST15.

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The second of Michael Rothberg’s pieces was the one below. 

ST16

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Here is Michael’s description of it after this session.

Arabatchi audience rug, mid 19th century. 2 ft 9 in  x 2 ft  5 in; asymmetric knot (pulled left)

Weft: camel hair and undyed cotton (2 strands); warp: wool; pile: wool with bits of silk highlights (four colors: yellow, light green, light pink, purple)

Design:  ll-over “tree” motif, with the ones in white forming an “X”, similar to some ensis: Grote Hasenbalg and ICOC exhibition example, only in a small format.

Border: cross-hatch design on ivory border, as in the ensis.

This piece was likely made for on honored (male) guest to sit on near the hearth; there are a number of Tekke rugs of this size and with the SAME cross-hatch border,

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suggesting a particular use. No other examples of this type in Arabachi are known to me—–published in my first article on Arabachi in HALI.

The next piece was the kilim below.  Its owner invited comment.

ST17

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(overall shot a little out of focus; following details are better)

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Paul Ramsey said that this was a type kilim seen in the 70s.  Woven in Afghanistan and called “Kaskari.”

The next piece was a large, fragmented Middle Amu Dyra chuval face with an ikat design. Its owner thought it was older, but wanted an opinion. Elena spoke to it.

ST18

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She said that it is older, Southern Amu Dyra, with an open left aymmetrical knot.  The warp is goat hair.

Details of ST18.

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Elena said that it is rare to see the eight-pointed stars that are in the borders.  She said that it was likely made for sale and may have been a rug rather than a bag face.  The dyes are all natural despite a lower area where the red ground has a faded look.  Elena said that the bottom elem design that we can only see the beginning of was beautiful.

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She said that the bright blue in the upper gul interiors is unusual for this area.

The next piece was very long.  If you look at the bottom of the image below, you’ll see that it goes on for a considerable extent beyond what could be shown on the board.

ST19

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This rug drew lots of comment.  This piece is John Wertime’s.  It will appear in his forthcoming Hali article.  John spoke to it, saying that it has a goat hair ground and dyed sheep’s wool pile. Symmetric pile knots.

He said that, too often, technical analyses say “wool” when goat’s hair would be more accurate.  He argued that if we do not get the basic materials from which textiles are made right we are doing a disservice to analysis.

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Elena said that its length suggests that it was used for a gallery or porch.

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Alberto Boralevi said that his first impression was that it might be Moroccan.  Attribution suggestions included: Afghan, Pashtun, Central Asia and non-Turkman Central Asia.  Wertime has said that this rug is of uncertain origin.

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The designs and colors on the pile side are visible on the back.

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The next piece was a pile rug brought by Fred Mushkat.

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ST20

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Fred said that this rug was woven in Jiroft, Iran.  South Central about 140 miles south of Kerman (the dot is Jiroft).

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He said that this is described as a “gabbeh” pile carpet.  This is a little known group with minimalist designs.  The foundation is goat hair and the pile is wool. Pile not quite as long as southwest Persians rugs that are also given that name.

Details of ST20.

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He pointed to the use of countered weft twining.  He was referring to the single row of chevrons at the top and bottom of the rug. You can see them in the image below.

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In the image below, the back of this rug is folded up over the front showing that the knotting is of the most usual kind.

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The next piece was a fragment with great color, drawing, and monumental design devices.  It was brought by Michael Seidman.  This is part of a very large Kurdish rug woven in the Saujbulagh area of Northwest Persia

ST21

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Comments included praise for the quality of the wool and the sensational colors that Kurdish weavers often produced.  Also their wonderful drawing with large scale motifs.

Details of ST21.

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The next rug was another Saujbulagh Kurd, over 20 feet long.  You are seeing less than half of it here.  It is Austin Doyle’s who said he acquired it “from a Boston estate and Ali Aydin.”

ST22

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Again the spectacular color and the monumental drawing that does not neglect smaller devices.

Let me try to bring you closer with details that walk down its visible part.

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And, here, is a bracketed section of its border system.

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ST23

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Colin England brought the next piece and said that it is a 20th century copy of a well-known Mughal rug.  Made in India, probably Kashmir. Pashmina, likely sheep.

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The field pattern is a tessellation, marked off by the white lines.

Deails of ST23.

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The next rug was brought by Michael Seidman.  He said that is a Kurdish variant on a serrated leaf motif seen in “vase” carpets.  The Burns book on Kurdish rugs has several.

ST24

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Elena said that it could be Karabagh.  That there are two groups, one with long pile and the other with dense, short pile.

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Michael said that the outer border is typical of Central Asian embroideries.  The main border is found in flatweaves of NW Persia and the southern Caucasus.

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The next two pieces were brought by Gerard Paquin.

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ST25

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Shahsevan sumac.  Woven in the Moghan-Savalan area.

John Wertime said that, “with the variety of motifs, it almost looks like a sampler of Shahsevan designs, though it is of course it is not a sampler.”  He also said that it is a premier example of fine Shahsevan weaving, and that he did not know of a comparable, published example. 

Gerard said that this piece is very finely woven and cited its range of colors.  

Gerard also mentioned that he had purchased it recently from Rodney MacDonald, an upstate NY dealer who had gotten it locally out of a house over 15 years ago, and had kept it in his own collection, until parting with it recently.

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ST26

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Gerard’s second piece was a small sumac bag with tassels. It’s less fine that ST25.  Again, the range of color was noted and the fact that the field devices are outlined in different colors to increase their visibility against the dark blue ground. Transcaucasus.

 He said that it presents itself, at first, as a mystery piece, since the tassels hang downward from the opening on the bottom of the bag, and, unlike to most bags, instead of having a plain weave back, the front and back are in  identical patterning, as though the bag was meant to be seen in use from both sides. 

Gerard, in conversation afterward, supplied an image of a comb and a wooden cover used for protection from the sharp spines for when the comb is not in use.  This comb is likely Turkmen, based on the stamped decoration.  

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But the Shahsevan, and other groups, used combs of the same configuration.  Below are Shasevan women combing wool on such a combing tool.

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In the image below, a wooden cover is about to be placed over the two rows of pointed teeth in the Turkman comb.  It’s clear that a covering is needed for safety, especially in the close quarters of a tent.

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And in the image below, the wooden cover is being slid onto the two rows of teeth.

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Below is Gerard’s “comb cover,” placed over the Turkmen comb, as a demonstration of its possible use.  

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John Wertime said that this comb cover is not a form that he is familiar with, and that, if correct, it is a rare item.  The downward hanging tassels are fashioned from wrapped warps, and so appear to be original to the piece. 

Gerard is not aware of any pictures documenting such use, and would be very interested if any could be found.

It may be redundant with many readers’ experience but “combing” wool is distinctive from “carding” it.  Combing fibers is a much older process, probably because it employs a simple and logical tool, such as the one illustrated here, consisting of one or more long, slender, pointed teeth.  Drawing the wool through the comb removes all the short fibers and tangles from the wool.  Spinning the combed yarn yields a “worsted” yarn, which is stronger, smoother and more lustrous than the softer and more “wooley” yarn produced by carded wool.  Combing wool can result in the loss of as much as half of the fleece, depending on the breed of the animal and the quality of the fleece. 

The next piece was another brought by Fred Mushkat.  

ST27

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Fred said that he’s working with John Wertime on minimalist pieces.  This one was Turkish.  Kurdish.  Probably a sleeping rug.  A typical interpretation of an animal pelt design.

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It is composed of three square pieces. The knotted pile is of unspun 6-inch wool.  The back has a quite different appearance.  The lower half of the back is being held up in the image below.

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Below is a larger detail of the back.

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This back is wonderful and not minimalist.

The next piece was another sleeping rug.  A little wilder looking.  Two pieces sewn together.  Long, heavy pile is from unspun wool.  Initial impression was that it was possibly made in Eastern Europe.  The brown in this rug is from goat and the yellow pile is from sheep.

ST28

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One reason for suspecting an Eastern Europe making is that this piece has a possible good purple in it.  Purple from natural sources had died out in Turkey for a long time, until Josephine Powell discovered how to make it in her kitchen sink.  In the interim, after natural purple has died out in Turkey, it was still being made and used in Europe. Post conference, a chemical analysis showed that the purple is a chemical dye.

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The back is not elaborate.

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ST29

The next rug was another in this minimalist group.  This was described as a Moroccan rug.  This piece may have been dyed after completion of the weaving.  There was also comment in the room that the gradual chromatic progression could have been the result of using different shades from the animals.  The browns from goats, the yellows from sheep (although there are goats with different color coats).

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This is knotted pile with multiple rows of weft between pile knot rows.

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ST30

Wertime said that this piece is from mohair.  It is called a “filikli.”  Unplied pile is knotted on four warps.

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The last of the minimalist rug was the one below.  It was woven in the Siirt area in southeast Anatolia, using variously colored mohair taken directly from the goat.

ST31

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It was woven in plain weave on cotton warps, 

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and then had the surface brushed up with a dried thistle, on one side,

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to form a faux pile in some areas.  These pile fibers are not the ends of knots.  They are pulled up parts of continuous wefts.

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The back remains entirely flat-woven.  Wertime has said that this structure is one of the oldest versions of pile known.

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The next piece had been brought by Connie and Jim Henderson, a recent gift.   It featured a wide, rich palette (10 colors) and dense, precise weft-float, brocade patterning.

ST32

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Here is a slightly closer image of ST32, taken with a different camera (click twice to see a much closer version).

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Two seeming separate flatwoven panels that Wertime said had been made to be a single bag.  Wertime placed it in the northwestern Caucasus.  A source, after, said that it is probably Kurdish.  There are hints of similar work in Wright & Wertime, Caucasian Carpets and Covers (1995) from considering combined comments and patterns about pieces shown on pages 111, 114, 146-147.

Here is the back of ST32.

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Additional details of ST32.

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ST33

The next piece was a complete mafrash bedding bag.  It was described as “trans-Caucasian.”

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Zili weave.

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Some brocading.

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The next piece had been brought by Marshall and Marilyn Wolf.

ST34

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This is a 20th century Central Asia (Kyrgyz) tent band.  Great graphics.  Elena suggested Uyghur, a bit farther to the east.

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That’s Marilyn on the right in the photo above, returning to her seat, after demonstrating how best to show this piece by doubling it back and forth across the board.

The dark blue ground is on cotton and may have been dyed before the designs were applied.  Almost no repetition of design elements.

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The designs are entirely in silk embroidery: double chain stitch.

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The next piece was the second of several Caucasian pile rugs brought by Austin Doyle.  He said it was southern Caucasus, from the 1975 Shurman Marshall estate sale. Possibly Kurdish.

ST35

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Details of ST35.

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T36

Austin said that he got this second piece from Grover Schulz in Chicago.  Similar to a piece in the Rudnick Collection.  An older south Caucasian rug.  Has never seen another like it.

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Details of ST36.

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Austin’s next piece was a Marsalli rug with a niche field design. Silk wefts.

ST37

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It has a curvilinear niche, seen to be an indicator of age.

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And the color patterns of the field compartments make a “V” shape.

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Two additional corner shots of this nice piece.

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Austin’s next rug was from NW Iran, likely Karadagh.

ST38

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Attention was called to the cartouche borders.

Here are some details images of it.

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ST39

Austins’ next rug took us back to the Caucasus.  An unusual Fachralo Kazak, with a niche field design.  Again a shallow niche. 

Interesting hands but also feet at the bottom of the field.

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The main border design’s large palmette devices tempt an “insect” description,

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More detail images of ST39.

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A cartouche above the niche that seems to be intended to carry a date, but the marks on it are not legible characters.

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ST40

The last piece of the day was small “city” rug brought by Colin England.  Made in the early 20th century, known as a “Kum Kapi.”  This rug is signed in multiple places by Zareh Penyamin, one of the most famous weavers of the Kum Kapi school.

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This rug has both silk pile (as well as warp and weft) and silver-wrapped flat-woven sections.  About 500-600 knots per square inch.

More detail images on ST40.

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Marshall Wolf stood in the audience and said what good session this had been, with interesting, quality material and knowledgeable comment.

Wendel Swan brought the session to a close and ICOC 14 was over.

After, gifts were given to the three presenters who gave talks in the academic sessions.  The lady on the left is Shirin Melikova, director of the Azerbaijanian Carpet Museum in Baku. She has a small Kyrgyz pile rug.  The lady in the middle is Irina Bogoslavskaya.  She was given six books on Russian printed cottons, but they were too heavy to hold up.  The lady on the right is Elmira Gyul and has a rolled up Uzbek kilim.  Irina and Elmira are experts on Uzbek, embroidery, textiles and carpets.

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My thanks to those who helped me construct this virtual version of the concluding session of ICOC 14.  Thanks, especially, to Margaret Jones, Jim Henderson, Fred Mushkat, John Wertime, Gerard Paquin, Michael Rothberg, Elena Tsareva, Saul Barodofsky, Andrew Hale, Colin England, Austin Doyle, Frances Plunkett, Alberto Boralevi and Ivan Soenderholm, at Jozan Magazine. 

I hope you have enjoyed it.

Regards,

R. John Howe

Dealers’ Fair at ICOC 14: A Second Look

Posted in Uncategorized on June 11, 2018 by rjohn

Dear folks –

ICOC 14 is over and the associated dealers’ fair is no more, but there was a second reception on Saturday, June 9, and I thought you might to enjoy having a second look.

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Again, the participating dealers were:

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Fair Dealers directory

Amir Textiles and Rugs                     

– Amir Oskouei –

141 Park St., Beverly, MA 01915/USA

Tel. +1/ (603) 205 41 49

Email: amirtextilesandrugs@yahoo.com

Internet:  http://www.rumirugsandtextils.com
Booth No. 17

 

Aydin Oriental Rugs                           

– Ali Aydin –

22 Grotto Court

Germantown, MD 20874 / USA

Tel.: +1 / (301) 792 72 26

Email: rugsdc@yahoo.com

Internet: http://www.aorientalrugs.com

Booth No. 9

 

Gallery Aydin                                      
– Adnan Aydin –   

Küçük Ayasofya cad. 5/B,

Sultan Ahmet Istanbul, Turkey

Tel. +011/ 90 (212) 513 69 21

Email: adnanaydin73@gmail.com

Internet: http://www.galleryaydin.com
Booth No. 1

 

B. Bolour                                              

– Noah Bolour –

932 N. La Cienega Blvd

Los Angeles, CA 90069/USA

Tel.  310-289-7959

Email: noah@bbolour.com

Internet: www.bbolour.com

Booth No. 11

 

Fred Hazin                                            

– Fred Hazin –

1452 Broadway

Burlingame, CA 94010 / USA
Tel.  +1 / (503) 351 11 75
Email: fredhazin123@yahoo.com
Booth No. 4

 

HALI Publications Ltd                        

– David Young –

8 Ability Plaza, Arbutus Street,

London E8 4DT, United Kingdom
Tel.  +44 (0)20 3727 4945

Email: david.young@hali.com

Internet: www.hali.com

www.cover-magazine.com

Booth No. 10

Fazli Solak                                            

– Fazli Solak –

2417 Ellsworth St  Suit A

Berkeley, CA 94704 / USA

Tel. +1/ (310) 254 5075

Email: fazlisolak@att.net

Booth No. 15

 

Hazara Gallery                                    

– Mohammad Zavvar –

6042 College Ave.

Oakland, CA 94618 / USA

Tel. +1 / (510) 655 3511

Email: hazaragallery@gmail.com
Internet: http://www.hazaragallery.com

Booth No. 16

 

Ibrahim Tekin                                      

– Ibrahim Tekin –

Binbirdirek Mh, Peykhane Sk.

Ersoy Apt. No 48-2,

Fatih, Istanbul, 34122, Turkey

Tel.: +90/ (530) 881 26 44

Email: rugspecialist@yahoo.com

Booth No. 14

 

Lote Hali                                               

– Fahrettin Isik –

Binbirdirek Mah.Klodfarer Cad. Servat Hani No: 29/206 34122
Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey

Tel: 0 90 532 331 4366

Email: fahrettinin@gmail.com
Internet: http://www.ottomangallery.com

Booth No. 17

 

Owen Parry                                         

– Owen Parry –

The 5 Bells, Llanelli Church,

Gilwern Abergavenny, UK

Tel. +44/ 7771 901130

Email: owenrugs@gmail.com

Booth No. 7

 

Ramazan Boga                                   

– Ramazan Boga –

Klodfarer Cad. No. 29/D

Sultanahmet Istanbul, Turkey

Tel. +009/ (054) 2689 10 68

Email: anatolianrugs34@gmail.com

Booth No. 9

 

Remart Antique Galleries, Inc.        

– Rodney McDonald –

24 Strathallan Park Rochester,

NY 14607 / USA

Tel. +1 / (585) 259-6156

Email: rodneymcdonad.remart@

gmail.com

Booth No. 13

Yoruk Rug Gallery/Minasian Rug Co.

– Mete Mutlu –

1244 Chicago Ave

Chicago, IL 60618 / USA

Tel.  +1 / (773) 600 9130

Email: yorukrugs@gmail.com

Booth No. 12

East of the Bosphorus                       

– Nicholas Wright –

Tel: +1 / (413) 458 5841

Email: wrightnh@roadrunner.com

Booth No. 6

 

Fine Rugs                                              

– Hamid Rafatpanah –

16 North Bryn Mawr Ave Unit 465

New York City, NY/USA

Tel.: +1/ (212) 696 0510

Email: oldcarpets@aol.com

Booth No. 8

 

James Cohen Antique Carpets         

– James Cohen –

Park Royal Oriental Carpet Centre London NW10 6NF, UK

Tel.: +44/ (0) 7747 610 248

Email: jamescohen50@hotmail.com

Internet: www.jamescohencarpets.com

Booth No. 3

 

Semerkand Textiles                            

– Osman Balbaros –

Yaglikcilar caddesi Astarci Han Kapali Carsi No 3. Beyazit – Istanbul, Turkey

Tel. +0/ (212) 526 2269

Email: balbaros.osman@gmail.com

Booth No. 5

 

Seref Özen Tribal Rugs and Textiles

– Seref Özen –

Küçük Ayasofya cad. No 15,

Sultanahmet Mah. Fatih

Istanbul, Turkey

Tel. +90/ 5337606792

Email: serefozen@gmail.com

Internet: http://www.serefozen.com

Booth No. 2

 

Serkan Sari

– Serkan Sari –

Waldstr. 71 76133

Karlsruhe Germany

Tel. 0 49 721 267 13

Email:  info@serkansari.com

Internet: http://www.serkansari.com

Booth No. 8

 

Hope you enjoyed this second look.

R. John Howe

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A Walk Through the Dealers’ Fair, ICOC 14, 2018

Posted in Uncategorized on June 8, 2018 by rjohn

 

Image may contain: sky, twilight and outdoor

This afternoon the Dealer’s Fair for the ICOC 14 opened here in Washington, D.C. in the Hamilton Hotel at 14th and K Sts. NW.  The dealers had a reception and my wife, Jo, and I walked around it and took some photos.

What follows in this post is a series of these photos without text.  There’s a lot of good material being shown.  The dealers’ fair is open to the public without charge.  You could still get there is you are close enough.

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That’s what I could manage, in a comprehensive ,but interrupted, walk – lots of folks to talk to on the way.

The dealers’ fair with be open:

Friday, June 8       11:00am – 10:00pm

Saturday, June 9  11:00am – 10:00pm

Sunday, June 10  11:00am – 5:00pm

Again, it’s free and open to the public.  You could get here, if you’re close.

Here’s a list of those dealers participating:

Amir Textiles and Rugs – Amir Oskouei 141 Park St. Beverly, MA 01915/USA Tel.: +1/ (603) 205 41 49 Email: amirtextilesandrugs@yahoo.com Internet: http://www.rumirugsandtextils.com Booth No.: 17

Aydin Oriental Rugs – Ali Aydin 22 Grotto Court Germantown, MD 20874 / USA Tel.: +1 / (301) 792 72 26 Email: rugsdc@yahoo.com Internet: http://www.aorientalrugs.com Booth No.: 9
Gallery Aydin -Adnan Aydin Küçük Ayasofya cad. 5/B, Sultan Ahmet Istanbul / Turkey Tel.: +011/ 90 (212) 513 69 21 Email: adnanaydin73@gmail.com Internet: http://www.galleryaydin.com Booth No.: 1

B.Bolour -Noah Blour 932 N. La Cienega Blvd Los Angeles, CA 90069/USA Tel.: 310-289-7959 Email: noah@bbolour.com Internet: http://www.bbolour.com Booth No.: 11 East of the Bosphorus – Nicholas Wright Tel: +1 / (413) 458 5841 Email: wrightnh@roadrunner.com Booth No.: 6

Fine Rugs, Fred Hazin – Fred Hazin 1452 Broadway Burlingame, CA 94010 / USA. Tel.: +1 / (503) 351 11 75 Email: fredhazin123@yahoo.com Booth No.: 4

HALI Publications Ltd -David Young8 Ability Plaza, Arbutus Street, London E8 4DT United Kingdom Tel.: +44 (0)20 3727 4945 Email: david.young@hali.com Internet: http://www.hali.com http://www.cover-magazine.com Booth No.: 10

Hazara Gallery -Mohammad Zavvar 6042 College Ave. Oakland, CA 94618 / USA Tel.: +1 / (510) 655 3511 Email: hazaragallery@gmail.com Internet: http://www.hazaragallery.com Booth No.: 16

Ibrahim Tekin – Ibrahim Tekin Tel.: +90/ (530) 881 26 44 Email: rugspecialist@yahoo.com Booth No.: 14

James Cohen Antique Carpets – James CohenPark Royal Oriental Carpet Centre London NW10 6NF Tel.: +44/ (0) 7747 610 248 Email: jamescohen50@hotmail.com. Internet: http://www.jamescohencarpets.com Booth No.: 3

Karavan Art – Owen Parry The 5 Bells, Llanelli Church, Gilwern Abergavenny UK Tel: +44/ 7771 901130 Email: owenrugs@gmail.com Booth No.: 7
Ramazan Boga -Ramazon Boga Klodfarer Cad.No.29/D Sultanahmet Istanbul TURKEY Tel.: +009/ (054) 2689 10 68 Email: anatolianrugs34@gmail.com Booth No.: 9

Remart Antique Galleries, Inc-Hamid Rafatpanah 16 North Bryn Mawr Ave Unit 465 New York City, NY Tel.: +1/ (212) 696 0510 Email: oldcarpets@aol.com Booth No.: 8

-Huseyin Kaplan Binbirdirek mahallesi,peykhane sokak, Ersoy han,38-4/9 Sultanahmet, Istanbul Tel: +90/ (538) 833 50 10 Email: karavanart1@gmail.com Booth No.: 1

Lote Hali -Fahrettin Isik Binbirdirek Mah.Klodfarer CAD servat hani No:29/206 34122 Fatih Istanbul Tel: 0 90 532 331 4366 Email: fahrettinin@gmail.com Internet: http://www.ottomangallery.com Booth No.: 17 Owen Parry– Rodney McDonald 24 Strathallan Park Rochester, NY 14607 / USA Tel.: +1 / (585) 259-6156 Email: rodneymcdonad.remart@gmail.com Booth No.: 13

Semerkand Textiles -Osman Balbaros Yaglikcilar caddesi Astarci Han Kapali Carsi No 3. Beyazit – Istanbul Tel: +0/ (212) 526 2269 Email: balbaros.osman@gmail.com Booth No.: 5

Seref Ozen Tribal Rugs and Textiles -Seref Ozen Sultanahmet Mah.  Kucukayasofya cad. No 15, Fatih Istanbul / Turkey Tel.: +90/ 5337606792 Email: serefozen@gmail.com Internet: http://www.serefozen.com Booth No.: 2

Serkan Sari – Serkan Sari Waldstr. 71 76133 Karlsruhe Germany Tel: 0 49 721 267 13 Email: info@serkansari.com Internet: http://www.serkansari.com Booth No.: 8

Fazil Solak -Fazil Solak 2417 Ellsworth St Los Angeles, CA 94704/USA Tel: +1/ (310) 254 5075 Email: fazlisolak@att.net Booth No.: 15

Yoruk Rug Gallery/Minasian Rug Co -Mete Mutlu 1244 Chicago Ave Chicago, IL 60618 / USA Tel.: +1 / (773) 600 91 30 Email: yorukrugs@gmail.com Booth No.: 12

Regards,

R. John Howe

Sign Up for The 14th International Conference on Oriental Carpets: Washington, D.C, June 7-10

Posted in Uncategorized on April 21, 2018 by rjohn


 

The International Conference on Oriental Carpets will hold its 14th International Conference here in Washington on June 7 -10, centered at, and for the benefit of, The Textile Museum, with events on the campus of George Washington University.  The format will be familiar: a Carpet Fair, with 16 international dealers, from Thursday through Sunday, an exhibition of collectors’ rugs and textiles, at the Corcoran Museum, academic sessions on Friday and Saturday, and a show and tell, on Sunday, with various receptions throughout.

To register, go to the ICOC website and click where it says for further information, etc.  That will guide you into and through the registration on our conference planner’s website.

http://icoc-orientalrugs.org/

ICOC is seeking rugs and textiles for inclusion in the collectors’ exhibition at the Corcoran.  There is no particular theme, so high quality objects from any region will be considered, from small bags to textiles to large carpets.   There will be many pieces from Central Asia and Turkey and Northwest Persia.   Please submit an image and dimensions of what you would like to have included in this world class exhibition to Wendel Swan at wdswan@erols.com for transmittal to the ICOC vetting committee.

ICOC is also seeking volunteers for several aspects of the conference, including help in installing the exhibition at the Corcoran, general help at the conference, help in advertising and promoting the conference and the Carpet Fair, especially through social media.  If you would like to volunteer for any of these tasks or would like to help with anything else, please contact Wendel Swan at wdswan@erols.com or by phone at (703) 960-2021.

ICOC will soon receive copies of a fabulous new book from Hali Publications, entitled Stars of the Caucasus, which is about Caucasian embroideries, and an exhibition of some of them held last year in Baku, Azerbaijan. ICOC is offering the book to those who support The Textile Museum and ICOC at the very favorable rate of $49.  It will be considerably more expensive elsewhere.  If you are interested, please contact Wendel Swan.

Lighting Your Carpets by Michael Kaplan

Posted in Uncategorized on June 20, 2017 by rjohn

On June 3, 2017 Michael Kaplan

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gave a talk at The Textile Museum, here in Washington, D.C., providing practical suggestions for safely lighting your carpet collections in a manner that brings out the beauty of their colors.

Michael Kaplan is a recently retired veterinarian who loves carpets and the collection of the same. He joined IHBS and the Textile Museum to become more involved and knowledgeable about this field and to meet fellow collectors.

He was involved with lining up continuing education veterinary programs for the Greater Baltimore Veterinary Medical Association and served as the group’s vice president and president for the last 15 years before retiring.

Michael began:

(You get a larger version of any image below by clicking on it.)

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I am a newbie to this level of collecting although I bought my first rug over 50 years ago. Aesthetics drove my purchases then as it does now. I want to love the rug. Natural dyes with saturated colors, excellent well thought out designs, lustrous wool and carpets in good to excellent condition are what drive my purchases.

Those criteria do not preclude new rugs. Actually it pushes me towards them since I do not have unlimited funds for antique rugs that meet those goals. Some new rugs can cost up to $300 a square foot but there are companies that come close for less than $100 a square foot. One line I favor is the James Opie Collection. I have nine of his rugs. Structural technical analysis interests me some but less so than many collectors. Unfortunately, one of my other interests is modern architecture and my home has much glass and thus light and thus fading.  I have lost many rugs due to this.

Most rugs show best with spot lighting and wall mounting.  The light frames the carpet and allows the reds and blues to “pop”.  I have found that Soraa MR16 LED bulbs in WAC track lighting fixtures work well and are cost effective.

After that quote we are still going to suggest rugs be wall mounted and spot lighted for preservation and to bring out the beauty of the carpets.*

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LEDs are preferred over incandescents such as halogens and fluorescents for lighting textiles.

 

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Most home users can afford a visible light meter but not a UV meter.

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Many MR16 LEDs can be dimmed but watch for flicker. Read specs on bulb and wall switch. When halogens are dimmed the color temperature and CRI can change but not so with some high end MR16 LEDs. LEDs can be dimmed to 5% of their normal output without affecting the CT or CRI. 

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Be very careful with warranties. Incandescent bulbs usually fail before their CT or CRI changes.  With LEDs their CT or CRI usually changes sooner than the actual bulb’s failing. Most manufacturers will warranty the bulb for luminance failure (the bulb blows) but not for changes in CT or CRI, although some warranty for both (or all three). 

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The above 39″ distance will vary with the bulb specifications. See spec chart for each bulb on manufacturers web site.

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In Harald Bohmer’s book “Koekboya” he lists different natural dyes and grades each dye on “lightfastness” from inadequate to very good so you can predict to some extent how they will do beforehand. *

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Below  (bottom of the following paragraphs) is a You Tube video link that explains the SORAA Snap System.  

You can also access this video by going to Google. Then entering SORAA Snap System. Then click onto “videos” and finding the SORAA Snap System video.  

It is important that you watch the “snap” video. It’s about one minute long.   You may also want to watch a video clip entitled “SORAA LED MR16 Full Spectrum Light Bulb Overview & Comparison.”  This  video is a over five minutes long.  It is usually the third video down on the right side of the page.

There are additional videos listed which also may be of interest but most are advertisements for SORAA or other manufacturers. Thus you may want to exit after viewing the “SORAA LED MR16 Full Spectrum Light Bulb Overview & Comparison” video.

If you enter a loop which repeats the same video just click onto “cancel” and then click onto the video you want to watch. When you are finished watching the videos click onto the <  icon  which will send you “back to previous page”. Keep clicking onto the < until you reach the “lighting your carpets lecture” again and proceed through the slide show. 

https://youtu.be/gfpxHOKizqU

 

 

 

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The monopoint is only one option. There are 2′, 4′ and 8′ tracks also available. 

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I usually use a white fixture and not the aluminum.

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Least expensive option is to order direct from Garvin although Amazon also offers. This ring allows one to change a 6″ recessed opening to a 4″ opening for a monopoint.

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Works for 4′ x 6′ carpet.

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Works for 3′ x 5′ carpet.

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Changes color temperature. See manufacturers spec sheet for details.

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PAR36 VNS (very narrow spot) are low voltage but higher wattage than MR16LEDs. May offer more “pop” than MR16. Are being discontinued.

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Do not use Velcro with adhesive added. Order online as hard to find this version in local stores. Preferred to most other mounting methods and usually will not damage the textile. Never vacuum the fringe part of the rug. 

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Will not fully block out visible light thus fading will still occur although to a lesser degree. See spec sheet.

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Above shows skylight at the end of this room. Brightest source of light in this room. 

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The edges of these vinyl album covers faded due to the exposure to light.

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The red rear of carpet faded to brown on the front.

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This carpet did not fade at all with extensive light exposure after 28 years. I suspect it has chromium synthetic dyes but could be natural dyes. The beige is just the original wool color.

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The yellow and pink completely faded out with sunlight after a few years of exposure. Synthetic dyes.

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Above has not faded after 37 years of exposure to light. 

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Carpets framed with MR16 LEDs.

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James Opie. New.

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Above rug is on the floor and would benefit from spot LED lighting.  The colors are quite striking in the correct light.

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This rug is rotated 90 degrees from it’s proper orientation. Antique. Natural dyes.

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Excellent example of red dyes poping with spot lighting.

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Four MR16 lighting the carpet. Rotating 90 degrees from proper orientation. 

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Natural dyes antique rug. 

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New James Opie design.

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New.

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Orange is probably synthetic dye.

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James Opie. Natural dyes. New. All James Opie rugs are natural dyes. 

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Blue pops with spot lighting.

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James Opie. New.

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It has been a hard day. 

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Some rugs are just too fragile to be vacuumed, but most benefit from a gentle weekly vacuuming. Never vacuum the fringe

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Michael took questions and brought his talk to a close.

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People crowded around and there was good and lingering conversation.

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Michael had a handout that provided technical definitions and other information.

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Lighting Your Carpets

Definition of Terms

Light: Light is the band of radiation that allows us to perceive color and is composed of many different wavelengths that correspond to specific colors. Light is best thought of as a spectrum consisting of ultraviolet (UV) at the short end, visible light in the center, and infrared (IR) wavelengths at the long end

 Ultraviolet (UV) is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays. UV radiation constitutes about 10% of the total light output of the Sun, and is thus present in sunlight. Ultraviolet rays are invisible to most humans. UV is generally a minor factor in the fading of dyes except when daylight is involved

 Visible Light is defined as the wavelengths that are visible to most human eyes. •It is measured in lux (lumens per square meter) or foot-candles (fc). One foot-candle is slightly more than 10 lux.

IR Infrared Radiation: radiation produces radiant heat which can damage textiles.  It is invisible to humane eyes.

Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light and is stated in units of absolute temperature, known as Kelvin (K). Lower color temperatures (2700 K) are called “warm colors” (yellowish orange). Higher (3000K to 4000 K are whiter.

 Kelvin (abbreviation K), less commonly called the degree Kelvin (symbol, o K), is the Standard International (SI) unit of thermodynamic temperature.

 Lumen is a unit of measurement for the brightness of light. Think lumens not watts. For example 40W LED = 450 lumens.

 Lux (metric units) is a measure of the amount of light equivalent to 0.0929 foot-candle (English units) and equal to the illumination produced by luminous flux of one lumen falling perpendicularly on a surface one meter square.  For example the maximum intensity for sensitive items is 50 Lux.

The wattage of a piece of electrical equipment is the amount of electrical power that it produces or uses, expressed in watts.

light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits visible light when an electric current passes through it. LED have no UV and little heat.

 Halogen lamp is a gas-filled, high-intensity incandescent lamp having a tungsten filament and containing a small amount of a halogen, such as iodine.

An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).

fluorescent lamp or a fluorescent tube is a low pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.

 Line voltage is the standard voltage that’s found in outlets and junction boxes, which is 120 volts in Canada and the United States. Table lamps, and most ceiling fixtures, chandeliers, are line voltage.  The beam spread is easier to control with low voltage than line voltage.

Low voltage means there’s a transmitter, and the electricity is being transformed so the 120 volts is being brought down to 12 volts.

Transformers are devices used in lighting systems to help reduce or “step-down” high voltages to lower voltages. Commonly used in homes with track/monorail or landscape lighting systems, transformers convert the standard residential electric current (120 volts) to a lower voltage (12 volts or 24 volts) required by the lamp or lighting system.

There are two main types of low-voltage transformers: electronic and magnetic. The biggest positive benefit of electronic transformers is they tend to be very small and they tend to be less expensive. Magnetic transformers are known for their reliability. For our purposes I would avoid dimming if possible. Also for our purposes we shall keep the transformer with the bulb.

What are MR16 lamps? “MR” stands for multifaceted reflector, a pressed glass reflector with the inside (reflecting side) surface composed of facets and covered by a reflective coating. These facets provide optical control by gathering the light from the filament to create a concentrated beam of light.

CRI a color rendering index is a quantitative measure of the ability of a light source to reveal the colors of various objects faithfully in comparison with an ideal or natural light source. For textiles, prefer LEDs with a high color rendering index (CRI), which is a measure of the color accuracy of the light. Some of the better LEDs have a CRI in the low- to mid-90s, which is good enough to see color nuance through the full visible spectrum (especially deep reds, important for textiles and deficient/inaccurate in many light sources). Cheaper general-purpose LEDs are usually around CRI 80, good enough for utility lighting but not for color sensitive applications. FWIW Compact florescents are often in the 70s and almost totally deficient in deep reds.

Fugitive dye. A dye that is unstable, that is, not fast.

IESNA: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Standards

The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America publishes standards for the lighting industry.

Damage Weighted Transmittance (Tdw-ISO), which many experts now use to more accurately assess the potential effects of various glazing materials on fading. This factor quantifies the ability of glass to reduce fading by measuring the effects of both transmitted UV and visible light.

PAR: Diameter of the face of the lamp expressed in 1/8ths of an inch.  Stands for parabolic aluminized reflector.

Suggested Lighting Equipment

 WAC LHT-817- WT lighting double droid Model 817 uses two 12V MR16 bulbs (not included). Finish in white, black or aluminum. Comes with electronic transformer built in. Compatible with L, H and J/J2 track systems.  I ordered LHT-817- WT. Do not buy LED model as comes with bulbs you do not want. LHT is Lightolier compatible. Dimmable although do not dim for out purposes. Source: Lighting Direct @ $108 originally $151.20. Can order from Amazon or most lighting retailers.

Lightolier shallow ring MR16 track light with electronic transformer built in.  Order in white. Lists for $108 but can find for $58. Poorly constructed and over priced at $108.  Other manufacturers make similar fixtures at $20 but be careful can use Soraa Snap on lens with and compatible with your track system. Check Amazon and other on-line sources.

Lightolier Basic White Monopoint. 6190WH  4.3 inches round. $21.50 Amazon

Soraa 00923.  MR16 bulbs for use with Snap System. – 7.5 Watt – LED – MR16 – 50 Watt Equal – 6000 Candlepower – 3000 Kelvin – 95 Color Rendering – 10 Deg. Narrow Spot.  Amazon $22.50

Soraa 00335 – Flat Top #116138D – Flat Top Lens Snap System – 25X25 Deg. Beam for Soraa LED MR16 – Self-Centered Magnet $6.60

 Soraa 00337– Flat Top Lens Snap System – 36X36 Deg. Beam for Soraa LED MR16 – Self-Centered Magnet $6.60

Soraa 00339 – Louv#116134C– Louver Lens Snap System – 40 Deg. Cutoff Beam for Soraa LED MR16 – Self-Centered Magnet $6.60

 VELCRO Brand – Sew On Fasteners – 15′ x 2″ Tape  $22.20

 3M Sun Control Window Film.  PR50, PR60 & PR70 UV rejected 99.9%. Plastic film applied to inside of existing glass to screen UV light and decrease heat transmission. Local contractor for Prestige Window Film: Professional Window Tinting, Inc. www.tintglass.info   $25 per window pane, $270 per French door with two single pieces of glass.

 Garvin Electrical Manufacturer Decorative Ceiling Trim Plate for securing 4.3” Lightolier Monopoint to 6” recessed ceiling fixture opening. Plate is 8” Diameter, 3.75” I.D. White, Steel. $14 per plate plus shipping.

Acknowledgments

James Henderson- manager of materials technology for General Electric.

Below articles by James Henderson and served as references for this presentation.

Oriental Rug Review. Volume XI, Number 5. Light Sources and Fading. P.26-29

Hali April 1991 Issue 56 p.137

Hali October 1991 Issue 59 p.80

Lighting Design & Application May 1991. Dye Fading p.16-25

Oriental Carpet and Textile Studies Volume IV 1993 Light Sources and Fading p.273-281

GE Lighting. Light Sources and Dye Fading June 2009 p.1-8.

Links

MWNF Museum With No Frontiers Carpet Collection

1ST Dibs : click on carpets. Fun site for the 1%.

TurkoTek : a noncommercial site devoted to collectible weavings, where rug enthusiasts can connect.

Eccentric Wefts Textiles and Text : John Howe site

R John Howe: Textiles Rug Appreciation Mornings

Rug Kazbah: very opinionated site. Fun to read if you do not take it too seriously

RugRabbit: on line site to show and sell antique oriental rugs. Always ask what is the dealer’s return policy.

Brian MacDonald Antique Rugs

Paradise Oriental Rugs: California retail shop with many educational videos.

Nomad Rugs: California on line site for new rugs. Excellent photos and fair prices especially when 20% off sales.

Austria Auction Co.: well regarded auction house.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

I want to thank Michael for creating and giving this talk and for his work with me to fashion this virtual version.

He has done a difficult and useful thing: treating a technical subject soundly, while making it accessible.

‘Til next time,

R, John Howe

 

Indonesian Textiles from the Collection of Roger Pratt

Posted in Uncategorized on March 12, 2017 by rjohn

On October 16, 2016, Roger Pratt

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roger4*

gave a program to an International Hajji Baba Society audience on Indonesian textiles from his own collection.

In his talk, Roger considered design influences and historical context for the pieces presented.

Roger is a textile enthusiast, collector and traveler.  He serves on the Board of Trustees of The George Washington Museum/The Textile Museum and is the outgoing President of New York’s rug and textile club, The Hajji Baba Club.  Roger recently retired from a 32-year career at Presidential Real Estate Investors, where he was Senior Portfolio Manager for a series of large commercial real estate funds on behalf of pension funds.  He and his wife Claire now reside in Washington, D.C.

Roger said that he had brought quite a few items of material and would speak to them, dealing with design influences, geographic locations where they were produced, and the historical context of their production.

He began with a series of maps indicating Indonesia’s location. First a comprehensive map of Asia.  On this map Indonesia is in the lower right corner in purple (not all of it shows clearly).

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The next map brings us a bit closer.  Here, Indonesia, again in purple, is at the bottom.

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map2*

With a third map things become more intelligible.

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As its name suggests, Indonesia is an archipelago of more than 10,000 islands off the subcontinent of India.   With 260 million people, it is the fourth most populous in the world and the largest Islamic nation.   The length of the archipelago exceeds the width of the continental United States.  The country’s culture, religion, and trade have been heavily influenced by India.  

Roger said that he would start with textiles woven in areas on the left (northwest) of the map above, the island of Sumatra (labeled more explicitly on the left side of the map below).

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Sumatran textiles were particularly affected through trading relationships between Arab communities and western India which preceded the western explorers by hundreds, if not thousands, of years.  

The first section of Roger’s talk highlighted a few of the major design influences from these regions and how they affected textile design in Europe and the United States as well as in Indonesia and Southeast Asia.

He moved to the first piece.

R1

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R1 is an 18th century fragment of an India made cotton chintz palampore ,with a fantastical flowering free design, which was exported from India to the Western European market.  Variations of these chintz textiles were also exported to Indonesia where they inspired indigenous local production, especially evident in batiks from Java.

Details of R1.

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Roger took us to his next piece.

R2

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R2 is a jacquard loom made shawl, thought to be made in France in the mid 19th century that was inspired by Kashmir shawls woven in India.  Napoleon and Josephine ignited the European craze for these textiles beginning in the first decade of the 19th century.  

Kashmir shawl designs in terms of format, layout, and designs such the boteh, buta, or “Paisley pattern” also influenced Indonesian local textile production, particularly in the areas of the main Indian trading ports on the north coast of Sumatra.

Details of R2.

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Roger  held up a piece related to R2.

Related to R2

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Comment on piece related to R2:  This is a Kashmir shawl sash or girdle with a large boteh end panel from the first half of the 19th century with a red rectangular center field.  This is an Indian design that captured the imagination of both European and Indonesian textile producers in a variety of formats and sizes.

Here is another piece related to R2.

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r2b*

Comment on the second piece related to R2:  This is another European rendition of a Kashmir shawl adapted to the tastes of the European market.

Detail of second piece related to R2.

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Roger’s next piece was a considerable contrast.

R3

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Detail of R3 below.  

India became the dominant player in the global textile trade when it developed a process where color fast textiles could be made with a consistently high grade of locally grown cotton.  These textiles were produced as daily wear for the slave market and the working class, as well as luxury goods for merchants and royal families.  

As noted India is particularly famous for its Kashmir shawls and elaborate chintz palampores, but they also produced simpler, more geometric designs for the mass market.  

R3 is a traditional headcloth, or keffiyeh, favored by the Arab market, which was also important to Indian traders.   India was also well known, then, for its plaid designs (most famously in the production center of Madras in southeast India), particularly in forming the border patterns of a cloth. 

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Again, a move to a very different type, a seeming kerchief.

R4

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To complete the journey of a textile design from India to America, R4, pictured above, is a modern version of a red bandana with a paisley design, popularized by cowboys in the American west, as well as Harley Davidson riders.  

The name bandana derives from the Indian bandhani, which means tie and dye. The original bandanas, or kerchiefs or headcloths were exported from India to the United States, but subsequently were machine made in the US, and then in China, but still conforming to the original India design motifs, which hearken back to Kashmir.

Details of R4.

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Again, we move to a quite different format.

R5

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R5 is a vintage folk embroidery door surround hanging from Gujurat in western India, with many of the most popular images in Indian textiles, including paired peacocks, parrots, lions, palm trees, and the popular Hindu elephant headed deity Ganesh, among others.  As we’ll see later, these motifs often also work their way into Indonesian textiles.

Details of R5.

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Next was a hat-turban assembly, presented in two pieces.  R6a is the hat part.

R6a

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And R6b is the accompanying turban.

R6b

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Comment on 6a and 6b:  Hindu-Buddhist traditions likely arrived in Indonesia from India at the beginning of the Common era and have had a deep and profound impact on Indonesia culture and textile design.  

The first Islamic kingdom in Indonesia was established in the 13th century in Aceh at the tip of northwestern Sumatra through trade with Muslim merchants, which included both Arabs and Sufis from Gujurat, India.  This effectively grafted Islamic concepts onto the preexisting Indonesian Hindu-Buddhist belief system as well as native animistic tribal traditions.    Subsequent to the introduction of Islam, many Indonesians made the pilgrimage to Mecca.  

R6a and R6b, pictured above, are a pilgrim hat and accompanying turban, made near Mecca and acquired by an Indonesian in Sumatra in the 19th century.  It follows traditional geometric Arabic design. Whether it was through pilgrimages or trade, Sumatrans were exposed to a variety of Arabic textile designs most notably the cotton tabby with warp ikat lozenge, or rhomboid patterns often made in gold and blue, or red and blue, which were frequently inscribed with calligraphy.  

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, in NYC, and the  GW/Textile Museum, have numerous examples of this type.   Below is an example of a Yemen ikat from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, dated to the 10th century.

Tiraz fragment from an ikat shawl

With R7, below, we move to textiles that a newcomer would say look like Indonesian textiles they have seen.

R7

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R7 is a Toba Batak “Ragidup”.  “Toba Batak” is a mountainous area proximate to the northwestern Sumatra port area of Aceh.  “Ragidup” means most well-known, raja, number one.  It represents totality and the concept of dualism.  

The white ends are joined into the field by a complicated technique called warp extension.  A continuous textile is achieved by introducing new warps from the end panels.  This is an ancient supplementary weft pattern reminiscent of stone work.  The end fields differ with one being male and the other female.  There are 23 stripes in the plum field and reflect the design impact of India trade cloth.

This piece dates to the early 20th century and was exported to a collector in Holland.  The Ragidup is often used as a ritual gift to women when pregnant with a first child; it can also be used to cover a coffin, or to recognize social achievement, or the parent of  the bridegroom.

Details of R7.

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r7b*

r7d*

r7e*

R8

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R8 is a Bingtang Maratur, also made by the Batak people.  Its 12 bands of ikat mean “ordered stars,” which is a reference to the regular arrangement of the body of the textile.  It indeed does look like a starry night. It has a predominantly blue coloring, with seven bands of refined supplementary weft end finishes.  

The format also reflects the Indian tradecloth with side and end borders accompanied by a multi section central field.  The central field ikat is likely an interpretation of the Yemen/Arabic lozenge design as mediated by local interpretations in the port of Acheh, where there was an Arab community.

Details of R8.

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R9

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R9 is another Batak textile, entitled “Ragi Angkola,” made in the first quarter of the 20th century.  It has  34 stripes with three pronounced bands of diamond lattice ikat,  It has a distinctive beaded pattern on the ends which may have a colonial inspiration.

Details of R9.

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R11

(Numbers are not always sequential.)

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R11  is a mid 19th century shimmering silk textile from Minangkabu, located to the south of the Batak area in western Sumatra.  

It has metallic thread overtones that display a prestige version of the plum diamond lattice design.  Sumatra is known as the Isle of Gold and is a major gold producer.  It is thought, however,  that the metallic thread used on these textiles was imported from China.

Details of R11.

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(Color differences are due to lighting and camera processes.)

r11b*

r11a*

r11d*

R12

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We now move to the Palembang coastal area of southern Sumatra which was a heavily traveled trade route by the Indian market.  

R12, above, was locally produced in the early 20th century as a version of a classic Indian tradecloth pattern that was revered in Indonesia.  The underlying cotton cloth was likely obtained commercially from India which was superior and more consistent than what could be made locally.    

It features triangle patterns on the border end panel (tumpal)  associated with the Islamic faith.  The design can have multiple meanings.  Its “filling” is often vegetal and is associated with the bamboo shoot or the cosmic tree, which is a sign of fertility and the life force.  It can also be considered to be the protective teeth of the deity Barong.  The central field is a regular arrangement of rosettes in a mosaic like pattern.

Details of R12.

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R14

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R14 is a cotton India tradecloth from the 18th century of the type traded to Indonesia and subsequently imitated there, per the image shown above.  It can be considered a “proto” batik and is a combination of mordant block printing and pigment painting.  The image in this example appears on only one side of the cloth.

Details of R14.

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R15

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R15 is a dramatic luxury tube skirt or tapis from Lampung an adjoining south coastal area to Palembang.  This piece features heavy elaborate gold embroidery work with fantastical elephants, roosters, peacocks, treasure chests etc. inspired by motifs favored by the princely families of India and emulated in Indonesia.

Details of R15.

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R16

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R16 is a double ikat  (warp and weft) silk “patola” cloth from Patan in Gujarat, India.  This is a luxury prestige cloth which is done in a very technically precise manner in Gujurat which results in a sharp pattern design and jewel like colors in contrast to the typically “cloudy” images in most ikats done on cotton (or silk and cotton).  

This patola was made for the Islamic market (note the triangular tumpal on the border).  The patola, particularly a version with a eight pointed pattern known as “flowering  basket” was coveted and imitated in Indonesia.  Less than 10% of cloth exported to Indonesia was silk and the patola was a particularly valued textile that was considered to have  unrivaled power and meaning.    Patola has a similar format and pattern to the previously discussed Indian tradecloths.

Details of R16.

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R17

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R17 is a late 19th century Kain Limar (shoulder cloth) that has design inspiration from the Patola cloth and is an expensive and prestigious production of Palembang.  It is silk plus weft ikat (limar) and supplementary weft gold metal thread brocade (sungkit).  

This is a classic example of the type.  The weft ikat design  in the center field appears in many Indonesian textiles as the garuda double-wing symbol.  The end panels feature flowering botehs derived from Kashmir shawls.   This type of end panel is typical of Kain Limar (in addition to the triangular tumpal).

Details of R17.

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(Color differences are due to lighting and camera processes.)

r16c*

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R18

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R18 is a Sarat Nanas from the Lampung area of south Sumatra (late 19th to early 20th century).  It is a provincial version of the more formal Kain Limar discussed above.  It has silk and metallic thread as well as pineapple fiber.  The unevenly dyed muted colors and pineapple fiber create a beautiful textured abrash.   The central rosette lattice pattern is derivative from Patola and Indian tradecloth.  This piece, too, features the Kashmir boteh design in the end panels.

Details on R18.

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R19

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R19 is an elaborate silk hat, believed to be from Gujuarat, featuring a  metallic thread Kashmiri boteh design.  This type of workmanship may have served as design inspiration for the Kain Limar and the Sarat Nanas shown above.

Details of R19.

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R20

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R20 is a silk and applied gold leaf headcloth, Prada Pudang,  from Palembang which is rather more elaborate than the Arab headcloth shown at the beginning of the program. The underlying form the  of the design is geometric with a rectangular border and diamond inset flanked by triangles.  

A tie and dye technique was used to create the rich purple center and red border, after which the gold leaf was applied in variety of rosettes and scrolling vine motifs using the goldleaf prada gluework technique, producing a sumptuous prestige garment.

Details of R20.

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R21

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R21 is a Tatibin from the late 19th (ceremonial textile) which is a smaller version of the famed shipcloths from the Paminggir people of  Lampung (the coastal southern part of Sumatra) which relates to the journey of life.    

This piece is made of cotton with supplementary metallic and cotton weft decoration. This one features confronting lions with a decorated mast or tree between them, a design that goes back at least to the Sassanian empire in Iran and spread to India, East and Southeast Asia from there.  Two simplified ancestor figures stand above the lions.  

Details of R21.

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R22

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R22 is a late 19th century tapis or ceremonial tube skirt (sarong) worn by women of Lampung, Sumatra.  They are warp faced but worn so that the stripes are read as horizontal bands.  This one is decorated with couched gold metallic threads and discs of mica, or little mirrors in a sun pattern, layered between archaic indigo bands of batlike forms that may relate to ancestor worship.  

Details of R22.

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R23

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Back of R23

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R23 is an elaborate jacket with silk, metallic thread, extra-weft weaving , shells and mirrorwork worn by women of the Kauer people of Lampung and would accompany variations of the tube skirt shown above.  The stripes of the jacket, in contrast to the skirts, would be read vertically.  The format of the jacket is derivative of Indian and Persian dress.  Local Indonesian costume would typically use a breastcloth rather than a jacket.  The jacket, particularly when accompanied by the nassa shell adornment would be heavy and warm and not practical for regular use.   

Details of R23.

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R24

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Comment on R24.  

We now travel to the next island south and east of Sumatra, Java.  

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Another map with clearer labels. (See Java. lower, left center)

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Java has long been the seat of governmental power for Indonesia, and was the base of the Hindu/Bhuddist Mahapahit Empire from 1293 to 1527 when it was replaced by the Dewak Muslims.  

With the rise of the Muslims and the availability of commercially available high quality cotton material, the practice of batik flourished, particularly with the development of the Canting pen, which had a reservoir to hold the wax and which made the creation of sophisticated designs easier to execute, proving to be a technological advance over India’s block printing and pigment painting.  Designs of batik were influenced by Indian, Chinese, European, and local sources, so there is now quite a variety of production.  

This is an older  classic batik from the 19th century featuring the exaggerated Wayang shadow puppet motifs of the Indonesian version of the Indian Hindu Ramayana, an epic narrative of the life of Rama, which remained beloved in Indonesia and Java after the fall of the Mahapahit Empire.   This piece features the use of Soga, the brown dye typical for older batik production.

Details of R24.

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(Differences in color are from lighting and camera processes.)

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R25

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R25 is another classic batik design from Java from the early 20th century.  Stripes on batik are typically on an angle, which when worn provide a sense of movement and flow.  The stripes in this pattern include both the Parang rusak pattern (meaning broken knife) and the patchwork pattern.

In India, the Tambal patchwork of triangles and squares  is worn by monks and the poor. Here, it is incorporated into the batik stripes.  The broken knife or broken dagger pattern suggests supernatural power and is believed  to be enemy destroying.

Details of R25.

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