Archive for the Uncategorized Category

CONTOURS OF CONTEMPORARY TEXTILES/FIBER ARTS

Posted in Uncategorized on January 27, 2021 by rjohn

CONTOURS OF CONTEMPORARY TEXTILES/FIBER ARTS

The Textile Museum, here in Washington, D.C. is edging into the area of contemporary textiles, which quickly morphs into textile arts.

This is an effort to sketch out what is and has been going on in this area of the textile universe.

I have created two Powerpoint documents to do this. Their title is Contours of Contemporary Textiles, Part 1 and Part 2. They are both over 100 slides long.

The link below is to the first of these

Issuu – Publication

The link below is to Part 2 of these two Powerpoints

Issuu – Publication

If there is no second link or the one there doesn’t work, exit this email and look for another announcing Contours of Contemporary Textiles, Part 2. .

Regards,

R. John Howe

Eccentric Wefts

NY Times Article on Julia Brennan

Posted in Uncategorized on January 23, 2021 by rjohn

There’s a nice article in today’s NY Times on Julia Brennan.

Better than the paper-based version. More photos.

R. John Howe

Myrna Makes a Card…and Offers It for Purchase

Posted in Uncategorized on December 4, 2020 by rjohn

Nearly by accident, I recently ran into a textile collector I knew years ago.

She’s Myrna Bloom Marcus, whom I knew then, primarily as a textile book dealer, whose shop in her home, in the Philadelphia area, she called “The East-West Room”.

Now the truth is that Myrna has always seen herself as a sculptor and a painter.  She has a web site where you can see that: www.myrnabloomart.com but that’s not what I want to talk about in this post.

As I said above, I knew Myrna as a textile book dealer and my wife and I had visited her in The East-West Room and had bought a few books.

Myrna had kind of logo page for her shop.

What you can’t see very clearly in the image above is that part of it is a painting that Myrna had fashioned and titled with “The East-West Room” name.

This painting is on her web site in full color.

©

Myrna says the painting’s name “was taken for my business name as a bookseller for 25 years.”  She adds that the original painting is actually signed on the left side of the black “Franklin stove.” It is for sale but at a price beyond my ken.

Even her offer to sell a full-size photographic copy of her painting at a more affordable price was outside the restrictions of my collecting budget.

So I wrote her and asked whether she was able to offer an image of The East-West Room” painting as a card.  She liked this idea and went about getting a 5″ x 7″ version made (with envelopes).  Here is what the card image looks like:

Notice that she has added the words “Health . Hope . Happiness” at the bottom.  These words are on all the cards.  The back of the card is blank.

Myrna indicates that she sells this card in boxes of 20 cards with envelopes.  The price of each box is $60.  Inside the U.S., add $5 for shipping. (for shipping outside the U.S., contact Myrna).

You can order this card by contacting Myrna at myrnabloom@comcast.net.

Payment for orders, before Christmas/Hanukah, should be sent to Myrna at:

Two Franklintown Blvd., Apt. 2414, Philadelphia PA 19103;

after that, to her at: 217 Millers Run, Glen Mills PA 19342

Keep well,

John

R. John Howe

Textiles and Text

http://rjohnhowe.wordpress.com/

Virtual Textile Museum

“Rug Mornings”

 Eccentric Wefts

https://raymondj.wordpress.com/

Musings of a Rug

and Textile Collector

 

Greetings

Posted in Uncategorized on November 26, 2020 by rjohn

 

Have Fine Holidays,

but Keep Well

2020

Jo and John

Heritage of the Middle East, Exhibition, Philadelphia, 1978

Posted in Uncategorized on September 4, 2020 by rjohn

Preface

I’m John Murray.

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In the 70s and 80s I was active as a textile collector and dealer, and traveled widely, in the US, to set up at shows.  In 1978, I was in Philadelphia and attended a very large show of oriental rugs there.  At the end of this exhibition, a lady, who was one of the organizers, gave me a set of slides of the rugs in the exhibition, together with a typed list of the descriptions of them, and some other hard copy materials.

I have had these materials ever since.  The only times the images on these slides have been seen, has been on a couple of occasions when I loaned them to a rug club.

The organizers of this exhibition have not, in the ensuring 42 years, moved to publish a version and it occurred to me, recently, that they should be published, and that the means to do that inexpensively was available.

John Howe,

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has worked with me, to put them in shape so that they can be more widely shared on his Eccentric Wefts site.

With 172 rugs, this exhibition was very large, certainly in 1978.  So, on that basis, alone, it was a considerable achievement.

My intent is to present this exhibition “as found,” without comment, but it might be useful to say a few things.

Two people are indicated as curators in what follows, but examination of these materials, suggests that this was intended as a collectors’ exhibition rather than an instance of rigorous rug scholarship.

The descriptions of the rugs are mostly devoted to design and color usages as indicators of attribution.  There is, also, occasional reference to dyes.

While materials you will shortly read distinguish and picture the two knots used most widely in oriental pile rugs, and although Hawley, in 1913, provided summaries of the technical features of all the groups treated, and while Edwards had further described many structural characteristics of Persian pile rugs, in 1953, the exhibition descriptions do not treat such structural aspects.

In truth, structural characteristics were only beginning to be included, generally, in rug scholarship in 1978.  So it may be that the descriptions given below were intended to serve primarily as gallery labels in the exhibition rather than rigorous technical treatments.

The slides are mostly of a single overall shot of each rug.  If you click once or twice on these images you will see larger versions of them.  Only a few detail photos were taken by the exhibition organizers. Some of these are of rugs on the floor. In the interest of your being able to see the designs and color used we have sometimes extracted detail images from the given overall image.  We have included these detail images only when the resolution of the original permits us to provided details that are in reasonable focus.  But the truth is that the best closer images can usually be seen by clicking on the initial overall shots.

With those brief cautions, here is this exhibition.

John Murray and John Howe

Fall, 2020

Antique Oriental Rugs from

Private American Collections

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“Heritage of the Middle East” is one of the largest and most comprehensive exhibitions of antique oriental rugs in the United States.  These rugs date from the late 18th to the early 19th centuries and reflect the traditions of four major weaving areas in the Middle East: Persia, Turkey, Central Asia and the Caucasus.  There is one Indian rug at the end.  Emphasis has been places on quality and variety in the selection of rugs from nomad, tribal, village and urban centers.  Most of these rugs have not been exhibited before.

We wish to thank those who have made this exhibition possible through contribution of rugs from their private collections and their expertise.  It is the Museum’s hope that this exhibition will provide the visitor with a new awareness and appreciation of this unique art form.

Frank L. Rizzo                         Ronald L. Barber
Mayor                                     Assistant to the Director

Joseph A LaSala                     Albina De Meio
City Representative and       Curator and Exhibition
Director of Commerce         Coordinator

John Pierron                        Zenon L. Feszczak
Executive Director               Design Director

H. Kyle Hedrick, Jr.
Guest Curator

Introduction

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Oriental rugs are reflections of the social, cultural, and physical heritage of the Middle East.  The craft of carpet weaving has been practiced for close to 2400 years.  Local traditions in terms of the selection of raw materials, such as cotton, wool, or silk, and design patterns interpreted from nature give carpets a distinct character of their own.  Hills, villages, towns, and cities provided the settings for workshops for the growth of this craft.  Rugs often took their name from the area or town in which they were created.

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Four Major Weaving Areas

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Looking Around

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Materials

The main materials used in the manufacture of carpets were made from animal and plant fiber.

Sheep’s wool is universally used for the pile of the carpet, and goat and camel wool were used to a more limited extent.  Silk was used in particularly fine carpets.

Washing is the first step in the preparation of wool.  From there, wool is sorted by color, texture, and quality of fiber.  So that wool can be combed to the point where its fibers are aligned for spinning, burrs and foreign particles are removed.  It is then attached to a spindle and spun into yarn which becomes the raw material for the pile of the carpet.

Cotton is frequently employed to give structure to the yarn once it is mounted on the loom for weaving.

Dyes

Knowledge of dyes has been passed from generation to generation until less than a century ago.  They were made from natural materials – plants, roots, bark, nutshells, berries, insects, and minerals.  Variations of shade and mixture of colors are made possible through refined techniques or the addition of mordants, an agent to fix color.  In the last quarter of the nineteenth century aniline and synthetic dyes came into use.

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Looms

Differences in lifestyles in the Middle East call for more than one variety of loom.  Nomadic herders seasonally migrate so by necessity their looms are portable.  Weaving does not have to be concluded every time the group changes location.  The loom normally held in place horizontally by stakes in the ground, is simply rolled up without being detached.

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Looms found in villages and cities are upright and more permanent in construction.  Settled life not only gives weavers more time to apply their craft, but also gives them the opportunity to produce carpets on a larger scale.

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Knots

A skilled craftsman can complete 8,000 pattern-forming knots per day.  For a 3′ x 5′ rug, the total number of knots would come to 1,700,000.  Thus, the craftsman would have to spend 216 full working-days knotting the pile.  Additional time is needed to insert the weft, beat down the knots, strengthen the selvedges and finish the carpet.  The entire process would take about one year.

There are two types of knot used in Middle Eastern carpets.

The Turkish or Ghiordes knot, in which the yarn is carried around two warp threads in such a way that the ends of the knot come up between the two threads.

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By contrast the Persian or Sennah knot is wound in and out, around two warp threads so that a single end alternates with a single thread all the way along the row. 

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Characteristic Features

Whether carpets appear in a nomad tent, in a city home, or a house of worship, they have been created with a specific purpose in mind.  They can provide warmth, be decorative or have symbolic significance.

The basic framework for most carpets is a central field holding characteristic decorative elements bound by varying-sized borders.  It is the different scenes, figures, flowers, plants, or geometric designs within the field that makes each carpet distinct.

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A rug type that appears throughout the Middle East in homes of rich and poor alike is the prayer rug.  It is used by Muslims throughout the area in daily prayer.  The distinctive feature in this carpet is the representation of the prayer niche or mirhab in the central field.  As with the other carpets, the design elements in these rugs vary from region to region.

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Description of the rugs in the exhibition.

Note: Numbers are not always sequential

(Click on most initial images to get a larger version.)

Persian Rugs

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  1. QASHQ’I      IRAN           MID 19th
    Birds and animals are a common theme in South Persian weaving.  The birds we see here are probably nightingales, a favorite bird in Persian life and lore.
    WARP:     MIXED BROWN, WHITE & TAN WOOL
    WEFT:      WOOL, DYED RED
    PILE:         WOOL
    LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

Detail of 1.

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2. FERREGHAN     IRAN          MID 19th C.
The green so common in Ferreghan rug is especially abundant in this rug.  The shift in coloring from a gray to green, then to a pale blue is the result of the use of a green dye derived from a source other than copper sulfate.
WARP:     COTTON
WEFT:      COTTON
PILE:        WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

Detail of 2.

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3. KIRMAN           IRAN             EARLY 20TH C.
Kirman rugs are known for the graceful drawing of their floral designs.  The combinations of color shown here, pink, light green, ivory and dark blue is typical of the production in and around the city of Kirman.
WARP:     COTTON
WEFT:      COTTON
PILE:         WOOL
LOANED BY PARVIS NEMATI

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4. QASHQ’AI         IRAN           MID 19TH C.
The Qashq’ai tribe of southern Iran uses bright colors and lustrous wool in all their weaving.  The design in the main border and the checkerboard pattern at each end are trademarks of Qashq’ai weavers.  The pattern in the field is more unusual since it appears mainly in rugs from the Bidjar area.
WARP:    WHITE WOOL
WEFT:     WOOL DYED RED
PILE:       WOOL
LOANED BY PARVIS NEMATI

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5. HEREZ        IRAN               LATE 19TH C.
Herez lies not far from the Iranian border with the Caucasus where large rugs featuring dragons were woven through the 18th century.  The shapes in light blue and tan which lie on the outer edge of the field recall these dragons with dots of color for their eyes.  The colors use are characteristic of Herez weaving.
WARP:     COTTON
WEFT:      COTTON
PILE:        WOOL
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

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(Colors not clear in the overall shot.  Detail below is better.}

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6.  6A, FERRAGHAN           IRAN             MID 19TH  C.
The pattern which fills the center of the rug is known as the Zulli Sultan and is derived from the Zoroastrians, the ancient fire worshippers of Persia.  The change in shade of blue at the top of he rug is known as abrash which results from a change in the dye lot of the wool used in the pattern.
WARP:     COTTON
WEFT:      COTTON
PILE:        WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JEFFEHIAN

Detail of 6.

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(Color differences are do to lighting or camera function)

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7. KESHAN              IRAN                  LATE 19TH C.
The strongly concentrating midnight blue and ivory field stand out on the fine wool pile of this product of the city of Kashan.  In no other area does the wool so closely have the luster of silk.
WARP:       COTTON
WEFT:        COTTON
PILE:          WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

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8. RAVER KERMAN          IRAN                 MID 19TH C.
This rug is unusual because of the single human form on the undecorated field, where otherwise multi-colored floral motifs are usually present.  The birdlike image of Ahour Mazda representing the god of Zoroastrian religion appears in the upper portion of this rug.  The coronation of King Darius the Great, ancient ruler of Persian, is depicted in the lower half of the woven narrative.
WARP:     COTTON
WEFT:      COTTON
PILE:        WOOL
LOANED BY PARVIS NEMATI

Details of 8.

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9. & 9a. BIDJAR            IRAN                     EARLY 20TH C.
The designs presented here are a combination of themes.  Included are parts of the tree of life pattern, animals from old hunting carpets and fish appearing at the bottom from garden carpets.  Although this rug was made by the tight weaving process of a fine quality of wool, it lacks a thematic harmony pointing to production for the western market.
WARP:    COTTON
WEFT:     COTTON
PILE:       WOOL
LOANED BY PARVIS NEMATI

Details of 9.

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10

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10. QASHQ’AI         IRAN              MID 19TH C.
The fine wool, the design elements in the mainn border, and the checkerboard pattern at each end are basic Qashq’ai features of this example of tribal weaving from the Shiraz district.  This rug contrasts with others of it kind by the use of pastel colors in the pile.
WARP:    COTTON
WEFT:     WOOL, DYED RED
PILE:       WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

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11. SAROUK       IRAN            LATE 19TH C.
Rugs produced in the area around the city of Sarouk are known for their repetitive floral and vine designs found in the fields.  Soft red, light blue and an abundance of green and ivory coloring is typical of rugs produced in this period.
WARP:     COTTON
WEFT:      COTTON DYED BLUE
PILE:        WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

Details of 11.

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12. FERRAGHAN     IRAN         LATE 19TH C.
The rich colors and fine wool disguise the extremely coarse weave of this rug.
WARP:     COTTON
WEFT:      COTTON
PILE:        WOOL
LOANED BY PARVIS NEMATI

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13. & 13A  FERREGHAN          IRAN        LATE 19TH C.
The flaming sun which is repeated in this rug gives this Ferreghan a special name – Zulli Sultan.  This rug was woven with very fine wool and the pile clipped extremely short.
WARP:     COTTON
WEFT:      COTTON
PILE:        WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

Detail of 13.

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14 & 14A  FERREGHAN          IRAN                 LATE 19TH C.
Persian rugs which employ this type arrangement in the field usually show great symmetry.  The flower at the top of the field is a departure from this convention.  The border, composed of reciprocal flower stalks is unusually rigid and contrasts with the flowing pattern in the field.  The border resembles those of rugs woven in the Caucasus rather than traditional Persian designs.
WARP:     COTTON
WEFT:      COTTON DYED BLUE
PILE:        WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

Details of 14.

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15  SENNA KURD       IRAN              MID 19TH C.
This rug is of mixed heritage.  The weave, sophisticated border design, and the border floral pattern point to its origin, yet foreign influences appear.  Whimsical figures appear in a medallion of Senna design, and the masses of color and the outer edging of biege wool show the strong influence of nomadic artistry.  This rug is a blend of city and nomadic influences.
WARP:     COTTON
WEFT:      COTTON
PILE:        WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

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16 & 16a  FERREGHAN       IRAN          LATE 19TH C.
Green abounds in Ferreghan rugs.  Notice how the green wool of the border has oxidized almost completely, while the green of the pile in the field remains intact.  This is the result of two different dye lots.  The botehs, or pear-shaped designs, in this rug are drawn so that they resemble cyprus trees, a design combination not common in Persian rugs.
WARP:     COTTON
WEFT:      COTTON
PILE:         WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

Detail of 16.

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17  SERAB          IRAN            MID 19TH C.
It is unusual to find rugs of this size to be built on a foundation made almost entirely of wool.  The limited color scheme and the abundant use of camel hair suggest that this rug was made by people whose lives were partly nomadic.  The palmettes in the field follow the patterns in northwest Persian rugs, while the eight-pointed stars and border figurines are the touch of the nomadic weaver.  Wool of natural mixed colors.
WARP:    WOOL OF MIXED NATURAL COLORS
WEFT:     COTTON AND BROWN WOOL
PILE:       WOOL
LOANED BY DENNIS DODDS

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18.  SENNA KELIM       IRAN            MID 19TH C.
The Senna District produced the finest kelims in Persia.  Pieces of this quality were woven by a girl to be part of her dowry.  In kelims the pattern is formed by different colors of weft thread and the design is the same on both sides.
WARP:   LINEN
WEFT:   WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

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19   MOSUL        IRAN           EARLY 20TH C.
The pile of camel hair and the limited range of colors show the influence of nomadic life in northern Persia.
WARP:   TAN WOOL
WEFT:    TAN WOOL
PILE:      CAMEL HAIR
LOANED BY JOHN AKARD III

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20  SAROUK          IRAN            MID 19TH C.
The shape of the central medallion is common in many Persian rugs.  The open, un-decorated field is found more frequently in Sarouks of this period.  In later periods the field us usually filled with floral arrangements.
WARP:   COTTON
WEFT:    COTTON
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

 

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21   FERREGHAN        IRAN           LATE 19TH C.
The border pattern has become known as the turtle border and is found repeatedly in Ferreghan rugs.  It is also a standard feature in rugs from areas around Senna and Bidjar in Persia.
WARP:    COTTON
WEFT:     COTTON
PILE:       WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

 

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(Click on the image below to see a larger version.)

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22   SAROUK     IRAN            MID 19TH C.
The pattern which fills the elongated central medallion is known as the Herati design, most commonly found in rugs around the city of Senna.  The most striking effect is the abrash or change of color in the field from black to brown to a light blue.
WARP:   WHITE COTTON
WEFT:    WHITE COTTON
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

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23 KERMAN                  IRAN                      MID 19TH C.
Probably no better illustration of the Persian love of flowers exists than in this rug.  The carefully woven flowers in the field of this rug are presented in an overlapping pattern giving an unusual three-dimensional effect.  The green, pink and deep blue of the field are typical of these rugs.
WARP:   COTTON
WEFT:    COTTON
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY DORIS LESLIE BLAU

 

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24  FEREGHAN       IRAN              EARLY 19THC.
Only a small number of Ferreghan rugs employ a central medallion on an open field.  Most are filled with small repeated floral designs.
WARP:     COTTON
WEFT:      COTTON
PILE:        WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

25

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25  PRAYER SAROUK       IRAN              LATE 19TH C.
Red, blue and yellow have always been the favorite color of Sarouk weavers.  The abundance of flowers and the shape of the prayer arch confirm its origin.
WARP:   WHITE COTTON
WEFT:    WHITE COTTON DYED BLUE
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY MYRNA AND JOSEPH BLOOM

 

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26  SAROUK             IRAN                LATE 19TH C.
Repeated floral designs are a traditional theme of Sarouk rugs.  The diagonal striped inner border is the type one would find in Caucasian rather than Persian rugs.
WARP:   COTTON
WEFT:    COTTON
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

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27  MOTESHAM      IRAN          MID 19TH C.
This rug depicts the Nader Shah, the Persian conqueror of India, the Crown Pince and his Advisors at the royal throne.  His wife is also present and is conveyed as a sunburst over the Shah’s shoulder.  The lower portion reveals the strategies involved in the conquest of India.
WARP:   COTTON
WEFT:    COTTON DYED BLUE
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY PARVIS NEMATI.

28

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28  & 28a  MOTESHAM KESHAN         IRAN              LATE 19TH C.
The Motesham family provided exceptionally fine Keshan rugs in the last half of the 19th century.  The wool for their rugs was spun in England and returned to Persia for dyeing and weaving.  The brick red and midnight blue are typical colors in these finely woven rugs.  The boteh or pear design that appears in this example is a design which occurs throughout the four major Middle Eastern weaving areas.
WARP:    COTTON
WEFT:     COTTON DYED BLUE
PILE:       WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

Detail of 28.

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29  MOTESHAM KESHAN    IRAN        MID 19TH C.
This rug presents a segment of Persian history with King Solomon, his sons and court advisors assembled at the royal throne.  Rustam, a famous folk hero, is depicted taming demons who tried to bewitch him in the lower portion of the field.  The borders of this rug are filled with scenes pointing to the magical powers of King Solomon and the lives of his subjects who gave support and strength to his kingdom.
WARP:   COTTON
WEFT,    COTTON
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

 

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(Click on the image below to see a larger version.)

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30  RAVER KERMAN    IRAN         LATE 18TH C.
Cyprus trees were a regular feature in Persian rugs. particularly garden carpets, until the 19th century.  Their appearance here with birds and flowers derived from this decorative tradition.
WARP:   COTTON
WEFT:    COTTON
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

 

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31  QASHQ’AI       IRAN             MID 19TH C.
The alternating black and white squares at the bottom of this rug are done in pile while the top is completed in a flatweave.  This checkerboard pattern and main border are trademarks of Qashq’ai weaving.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    WOOL DYED RED
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

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32  HEREZ      IRAN              MID 19TH C.
The fine silk thread and selection of colors give this rug unequaled beauty and grace.  The pattern in interlocking vines and flowers is common to Persian weaving.  Lost in the beauty of this rug is the weaver’s hesitation:  the large blue flowers at the bottom of rug were introduced again at the top but were not completed.
WARP:   SILK
WEFT:    SILK DYED BLUE
PILE:      SILK
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

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33  TABRIZ           IRAN             LATE 19TH C.
The apricot and beige colors typical of Tabriz weaving dominate this rug.  The flowers in the border are almost life-like due to their careful execution in the woven pile.  The repeated pattern in the field of this rug is unusual for a Tabriz.
WARP:  SILK
WEFT:   SILK DYED BLUE
PILE:     SILK
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

34

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34  The apricot color and the graceful execution of flowers and vines are traditional in Tabriz weaving.  The broad band of color extending to the edge of the rug with no color framing is an unusual treatment in Persian rugs.
WARP:  SILK
WEFT:   SILK DYED PINK
PILE:     SILK
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

35

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35  TABRIZ                 IRAN             MID 19TH C.
This rug presents Persain weaving at its best.  The cartouches in the main border are filled with quotations from the Koran, the sacred book of Islam.  The apricot color common to Tabriz weaving fills an apparently empty field.  Closer inspection reveals leaves and vines executed in a lighter color silk.
WARP:  SILK
WEFT:   SILK DYED PINK
PILE:     SILK
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

36

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36  PRAYER HEREZ          IRAN            MID 19TH C.
The deep blue, red and beige used in the pile in this rug are common colors in the weaving area about Herez.  In this rug, the columns do not support the prayer arch and there is a group of lanterns depicted similar to those that hang from the dome in the center of the mosque.
WARP:   SILK
WEFT:    SILK
PILE:      SILK
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

37

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37  HEREZ        IRAN               MID 19TH C.
This rug differs in three respects from those usually produced by the weaving factories of Herez.  Instead of a central medallion, it employees a repeated vine pattern in softer colors and finer weave than usually encountered.
WARP:    COTTON
WEFT:     COTTON
PILE:       WOOL
LOANED BY ROBERT KAHN

38

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38  KHORROSAN       IRAN           LATE 19TH C.
The city of Khorrosan lies in far eastern Iran on the trade routes from India.  The red used in this rug comes from secretions of a beetle cultivated in northern India and is almost the only shade of red which appears in carpets from this area.
WARP:   COTTON
WEFT:    COTTON
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

39

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39  MESHED                IRAN                      EARLY 20TH C.
The Reza Shah, father of the present Shah of Iran, ordered his rugs to be made distinct from the usual Mesheds.  The manufacturer, Amogli, whose name is woven at the top, complied by adding a bed of red silk around the outer edge.  This shade of red is the one commonly found in these rugs from eastern Iran.
WARP:  COTTON
WEFT:   COTTON
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY PARVIS NEMATI

40

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40  PERSIAN GARDEN CARPET       IRAN                  18TH C.
According to the Koran, the holy book of islam, gardens are part of the promise of Heaven.  For Persians, they have always been a welcome part of life in their arid land.  Rugs like this garden carpet with its field of rivers, trees and flowers were produced for the royalty and as gifts for royalty abroad.  By the 19th Century, production of these rugs had ceased.
WARP:   COTTON
WEFT:    COTTON
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY DORIS LESLIE BLAU

41

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41  HEREZ         IRAN             MID 19TH C.
The soft colors and stylized tree design repeated throughout the field appear most commonly in Herez rugs from this period.  These products of large factory looms appear with center medallions and vines later in the century.
WARP:   COTTON
WEFT:   COTTON
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

Note:  As the description says, 42 is not Persian.  It is placed in this group because that’s where it was placed in the slide sequence.

42

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42   SYRIAN GOLD AND SILVER KILIM                             19TH C.
WARP:  SILK
WEFT:   SILK, GOLD AND SILVER
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY PARVIS NEMATI

CAUCASIAN

RUGS

43

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43  KAZAK               CAUCASUS, USSR              MID 19TH C.
The typical colors of red, blue, green, yellow ad white, fine wool and weave describe the typical Kazak.  Here the weaver has abandoned the usual wide proportions of Kazak borders and has taken care to give the botehs or pear-shaped designs and delicacy almost never seen in these bold rugs.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL DYED RED
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

44

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44  KUBA              CAUCASUS, USSR           LATE 19TH C.
The outer border, commonly called a wave or “running dog” border,  is the most usual in Kuba rugs.  The red-on-red inner border also appears frequently in rugs of this type.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    BROWN WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

45

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45  CHICHI      CAUCASUS, USSR            LATE 19TH C.
The red field and use of lighter colors, including synthetic or aniline dyes, point to the production of this rug in the later 19th Century.  The border and the field designs are typical of rugs produced by the Tchenchens.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WHITE WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

46

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46  PRAYER KUBA   CAUCASUS, USSR     EARLY 19TH C.
The stalks of flowers that appear in the yellow field of this rug disappear in rugs of later periods.  Usually only the flower remains.
WARP:   BROWN WOOL
WEFT”   WHITE WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ROBERT KAHN

47

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47  LESGHIAN              CAUCASUS, USSR             EARLY 19TH C.
The soft yellow field employs an unusual design of flower stalks which show strong Persian influence once dominant in the Caucasus.  This contrasts sharply with the border of boldly contrasting brown and white.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    WHITE WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

48

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48  SHIRVAN    CAUCASUS, USSR              LATE 19TH C.
Caucasian rugs often contained characters from everyday life.  The field of this rug contains a wealth of flowers and fanciful animals.  The weaver included two horses with saddles, trappings and just the rider’s legs.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    COTTON
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

49

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49  SHIRVAN      CAUCASUS, USSR             LATE 19TH C.
This rug shows a variety of influences.  The main border is traditional in Daghestan rugs while the pear shapes in the stripe forming the prayer arch bear a likeness to Marsali design.  The use of lattice work in the field is found in a wider distribution throughout the Caucasus.
WARP:  TAN WOOL
WEFT:   COTTON
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

50

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50  KAZAK        CAUCASUS, USSR   LATE 19TH C.
Rugs of this type usually employee bold patterns laid on a field of solid color.  The so-called crab border which surrounds the field is common throughout the Caucasus.
WARP:  TAN WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL DYED RED
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY PARVIS NEMATI

51

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51  PRAYER CARABAUGH       CAUCASUS, USSR               MID 19TH C.
This example of Carabaugh weaving begins with one pattern at the bottom which the weaver abandoned for new designs the entire length of the rug.  Such changes in design are common in Caucasian, but quite pronounced in these prayer rugs from the southmost Caucasus.  Sampler?
WARP:   BROWN WOOL
WEFT:    TAN WOOL
PILE:       WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

52

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52  SHIRVAN             CAUCASUS, USSR                   MID 19TH C.
Rugs from the Caucasus often bear the imprint of the Persian conquerors.  The profusion of flowers in the minor borders, and the stylized cartouches in the major borders show a strong affinity to Persian design.
WARP:   BROWN WOOL
WEFT:    COTTON
PILE:       WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

53

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53  BAKU          CAUCASUS, USSR            MID 19TH C.
The botehs, or pear-shaped designs, in this rug are the type found almost exclusively in these rugs from the northern coast of the Caspian Sea.  The use the cochineal red and blending of soft colors are also common.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   COTTON
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

54

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54  Moghan            CAUCASUS, USSR            MID 19TH C.
The shades of lavender and red seen here come from cochineal dye commonly used in these rugs.  The general proportions, stepped polygons in the field and the stylized birds in the main border are also standard feature of rugs from the southern Caucasus.
WARP:  BROWN AND WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   COTTON
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY KYLE HEDRICK, JR.

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55

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55  SHIRVAN          CAUCASUS, USSR            MID 19TH C.
The standard medallions and the red panels at each end of the field are common patterns in rugs from the northern Caucasus.  The reciprocal triangles of the main border are another common feature, although they usually occur in connection with the pattern in the field.
WARP:  BROWN WOOL
WEFT:   COTTON
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

56

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56  KHILLA         CAUCASUS, USSR                    EARLY 19TH C.
Khillas appear most often with this pattern.  The color combination of dark rhombs and flowers on the pale blue and gold field stands in marked contrast to most Caucasian and Persian weaving.
WARP:   WHITE COTTON
WEFT:    WHITE COTTON
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

57

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57  SUMAC           CAUCASUS, USSR               MID 19TH C.
Although this piece of weaving is made without pile and identifiable weave, the running dog border and the color combinations point to an origin in the Kuba area,  The large stars in the field are similar to those found in Eagle Kazak rugs.
WARP:  TAN WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:     NOT PILE; A SUMAK FLATWOVEN STRUCTURE

58

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58  PRAYER DAGHESTAN                CAUCASUS, USSR                 MID 19TH C.
Ordutch is the name given to the design in this rug.  The design is derived from the pattern of earlier Persian garden carpets.
WARP:   BROWN & WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    BROWN WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY MYRNA AND JOSEPH BLOOM

59

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59  KAZAK        CAUCASUS, USSR                       MID 19TH C.
This rug lacks the bold geometric forms found in most Kazak rugs.  The narrow-striped border is that of older Daghestan rugs, and the open field bears a strong resemblance to the rugs from Talish.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    TAN WOOL
PILE:       WOOL
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

60

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60  PEREPIDAL    CAUCASUS. USSR                     LATE 19TH C.
These rugs from the Kuba area are known as Perepidals for the ram’s horn design which appears in the field.  This design usually appears with the so-called Kufic border seen in this example.
WARP:    WHITE WOOL
WEFT:     COTTON
PILE:       WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

61

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61  PRAYER KUBA     CAUCASUS, USSR                LATE 19TH C.
The large Lesghi stars rarely appear as a single border as seen in this example.  Two letters of Armenian alphabet appear upside down in the right-hand border because the weaver made the rug from top to bottom to make in more comfortable for prayer.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   COTTON
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

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62

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62  The random organization of the design elements in the field place this rug in the late 19th century.  The main border is made up of highly abstract tulip and leaf designs.
WARP:  TAN WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL DYED RED
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY PARVIS NEMATI

63

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63  PRAYER DAGHESTAN         CAUCASUS, USSR                      MID 19TH C.
In this example the Ordutch design of the center medallion has been modified to accommodate a prayer arch.  Weavers seldom use this variation in pattern.
WARP:   BROWN WOOL
WEFT:    WHITE WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

64

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64  DAGHESTAN                 CAUCASUS, USSR              MID 19TH C.
The designs in the field of this rug are believed to be derived from Ushak rugs made in northwestern Turkey.  Lorezo Lotto, a 16th century Italian painter, introduced them into his paintings and this pattern acquired the name of “Lotto.”
WARP:   BROWN AND WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    COTTON
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

65

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65  DAGHESTAN           CAUCASUS, USSR                MID 19TH C.
The serrated boteh or pear-shaped designs in the field point to an origin near Marasali.  The geometric forms of the main border have been given legs making them appear to be birds instead the original intended clusters of grapes.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    WHITE COTTON
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

66

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66  PRAYER SHIRVAN        CAUCASUS, USSR                   EARLY 20TH C.
This rug demonstrates the difficulty in dating a rug by the sum of its characteristics.  The beautiful wool, fine weave and delicate design suggest that it was made over a century ago.  But the date woven at the top is 1912.  Ewers and water pitchers, symbolizing cleanliness, appear frequently in prayer rugs.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    WHITE COTTON
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

67

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67  FACHRALO KAZAK                  CAUCASUS, USSR                MID 19TH C.
The large center medallion and the use of a single stripe of color to form the prayer arch and outline the field mark this as a kind of Kazak known as Farchralo.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL DYED RED
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY MYRNA AND JOSEPH BLOOM

68

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68  PRAYER KUBA                  CAUCASUS, USSR                   MID 19TH C.
Weavers often copied a rug in its entirety.  The may have happened to this rug which is dated 1790.  The weave of Kuba rugs and the design attributes from Kaghestan together suggest that this rug was produced much later.
WARP:   TAN WOOL
WEFT:    WHITE WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

69

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69  DAGHESTAN               CAUCASUS, USSR                      LATE 19TH C.
The diagonal rows of the field are composed of torch-like rows containing crosses.  These torches represent those used in wedding processions.  The traces of bright red result from a synthetic dye showing that the rug dates no earlier than 1870/80.
WARP:  BROWN WOOL
WEFT:   COTTON
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

 

70

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70  CARABAUGH                  CAUCASUS, USSR                    LATE 19TH C.
Across the border in the Caucasus lies the province of Carabaugh.  Rugs from the area abound in floral motifs which show the influence of their Persian neighbors.
WARP:  BROWN & WHITE WOOL
WEFT;   BROWN & WHITE WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

71

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71  SEISHOUR                 CAUCASUS, USSR                    MID 19TH  C.
The crosses which fill the field of this rug are typical of Seishour rugs from the area north of Kuba.  The deep green field is quite rare, replacing the more common ivory background.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    BROWN WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

72

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72  SEISHOUR                        CAUCASUS, USSR                      MID 19TH C.
After the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the early 19th century, many Russian officers ordered rugs from village weavers in floral patterns.  This reflected the influence of French taste in the Russian Imperial Court.  The blue and white outer border is typical of rugs from the area around Kuba.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    TAN WOOL
PILE:       WOOL

73

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73  KUBA                   CAUCASUS, USSR                         LATE 19TH C.
This fine wool pile strengthens the colors which appear in rugs like this one from Kuba.  The use of blue trim on the sides and ends is a weaving technique particular to this area.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   TAN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

74

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74  PRAYER DAGHESTAN         CAUCASUS, USSR.                LATE 19TH C.
Above the prayer arch are shapes which resemble combs or rain clouds.  Both symbolize the personal cleanliness necessary for a Moslem to begin prayer.  The simple geometric forms in all of the borders are typical of simplified designs used by the late 19th Century.
WARP:  TAN WOOL
WEFT:   TAN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

75

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75  KARAGASHLI              CAUCASUS, USSR                  LATE 19TH C.
The pattern in the field is derived from the early Persian palmette and flower pattern.  This shows the various influences throughout weaving regions.
WARP:  BROWN & WHITE
WEFT:   BROWN & WHITE
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

76

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76  SHIRVAN                     CAUCASUS, USSR                     MID 19TH C.
White stylized flowers are seen in this example occurred frequently in north Caucasian rugs through this period.  At first glance, the rug seems littered with ornaments.  A closer inspection reveals a pairing of designs from right to left.
WARP:  BROWN WOOL
WEFT:   TAN WOOL AND COTTON
PILE:     WOOL

77

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77  SHIRVAN            CAUCASUS, USSR                      MID 19TH C.
Yellow appears frequently as the color of the field in rugs from regions along the Caspian Sea.  Its use becomes less common toward the end of the 19th Century..
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   TAN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL

78

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78  Caucasian rugs are known for the lustrous quality and brilliant quality of their wool.  The unusual design in the field of this rug is typical of the Derbend district, north of the Caspian Sea.
WARP:   TAN WOOL
WEFT:    TAN WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

79

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79   BORDJALOU  KAZAK                   CAUCASUS, USSR                          MID 19TH C.
The wide main border of interlock design and similar medallions in the field occur most frequently in Bordjalous.  The pile is longer and heavier than in any other Caucasian rug.
WARP:  TAN WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL DYED REDDISH BROWN
PILE:     WOOL
LOANDE BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

80

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80  LESGHIAN        CAUCASUS, USSR              MID 19TH  C.
Large Lesghi stars fill the field of this rug from Lesghistan in the northern Caucasus.  The dark and limited range of colors and the simply shaped designs are common features in these rugs.
WARP:    WHITE WOOL
WEFT:     BROWN WOOL
PILE:       WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

81

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81  KAZAK                  CAUCASUS, USSR                   LATE 19TH C.
The large S-shaped figures in the field represent highly stylized dragons.  This pattern is more commonly found in flat woven, pile-less textiles from the northern Caucasus.
WARP:  TAN WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL DYED RED
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY PARVIS NEMATI

82

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82  DAGHESTAN                 CAUCASUS, USSR                    LATE 19TH C.
The use of a large medallion and masses of deep color place this rug outside the normal decorative arrangement for Daghestan.  Smaller, repeated designs are the rule.  Though differing in this way, the pattern was repeated endlessly in one small area of Daghestan.
WARP:  BROWN & WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WHITE WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

83

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83  PRAYER KUBA            CAUCASUS, USSR              LATE 19TH C.
While the border motif in this rug is commone in the northern Caucasus, the geometric design, or Lesghi star, used in the field of a prayer rug makes this an unusual example.
WARP:  BROWN WOOL
WEFT:   RED WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY MYRNA AND JOSEPH BLOOM

84

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84  TALISH            CAUCASUS, USSR                LATE 19TH C.
The Persians controlled the southern Caucasus for centuries.  Their influence is evidenced by sprigs of flowers in the corner bottoms of this rug.  A form of the Chinese endless knot which was introduced to the Caucasus by Persians appears throughout the field.
WARP:  BROWN WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY DENNIS DODDS

85

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85  CHICHI            CAUCASUS, USSR                   MID 9TH CENTURY C.
The three connected medallions in the field form the designs usually found in these rugs.  The main border of diagonal stripes and rosettes is the common type used by Tchenchen weavers.
WARP:  BROWN & WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   COTTON
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

86

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86  PRAYER SHUSHA                 CAUCASUS, USSR                           LATE 19TH C.
Rugs produced near the mountain city of Shusha in the Carabaugh District  are known for their subdued shades of blue, red and brown as seen in this example.  The finish of the two side cords is another characteristic from this area.
WARP:   BROWN & WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    BROWN WOOL
FILE:       WOOL
LOANED BY KYLE HEDRICK, JR.

87

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87  KUTAIS                 CAUCASUS, USSR              MID 19TH C.
The vertical stripes filled with vines and botehs represent the most common field pattern found in these rugs of southern Caucasus.  The border is that commonly found in Kazaks  produced in the valleys north of the city of Kutais.
WARP:  BROWN 7 WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

88

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88  BAKU                 CAUCASUS, USSR                      MID 19TH C.
No other Caucasian rug incorporated birds in its design as frequently as those from Baku, a city on the Caspian Sea.  The alternating border stripes of red and white also appear repeatedly on these rugs.
WARP:  BROWN & WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   COTTON
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

89

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89  MARASALI          CAUCASUS, USSR               MID 19TH C.
Marasali rugs are known for the botehs or pear-shapes of the main border seen in this example.  The serrated botehs of the field  and wide range of colors are also typical of these finely woven rugs.
WARP:  COTTON
WEFT:   COTTON
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

90

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90  KAZAK       CAUCASUS, USSR              MID 19TH C.
Rugs with this design in the field were known as Eagle Kazaks (now Eagle Karabaughs).  The use of half of a design is a common practice stemming from the Persian belief that a design can continue into infinity.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    BROWN WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ROBERT KAHN

91

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91   DAGHESTAN        CAUCASUS, USSR            LATE 19TH C.
The diagonal rows of striped polygons show marked changes in shade known as abrash.  Animals and leaf forms show the variety of forms used by Caucasian weavers to decorate their weaving.
WARP:   TAN WOOL
WEFT:    COTTON
PILE:       WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

92

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92  SHIRVAN                CAUCASUS, USSR                    LATE 19TH C.
The stylized carnations and striped main border are common to older Shirvan rugs.  The rows of polygons are placed diagonally in the field, the favored arrangement in Caucasian weaving.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    COTTON
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

93

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93  TALISH                  CAUCASUS, USSR                    MID 19TH C.
Weavers in the mountain range of Talish produced rugs of fine wool pile and simple design.  The arrangement of rosettes and four small squares on the main border and the nearly empty field are standard features in rugs of this mountainous area.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT;   COTTON
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ROBERT KHAN

94

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94  DAGHESTAN                CAUCASUS             LATE 19TH C.
At the end of the 20th century most Caucasian weaving was a mater of coarse reproduction.  The fine weaving, quality of wool and beautiful coloring point to the fact that fine rugs were still produced in the late 19th century.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WHITE COTTON
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

 

95

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95  KUBA           CAUCASUS, USSR                      LATE 19TH C.
Certain designs and color combinations appear over and over again establishing traditions in certain areas.  This rug belongs to the tradition of the Kuba area but with variations.  The border stars replace the normal blue and white wave pattern.  The inner instead of the outer arms of one cross in the field are missing.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WHITE WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

96

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96  SEWAN KAZAK             CAUCASUS, USSR                MID 19TH C.
Few Kazaks show the heavy concentration of brown in the border as seen in this example.  The curled red and blue patterns in this border are unusual features in these rigidly geometric rugs.
WARP:  TAN WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL DYED RED
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY PARVIS NEMATI

97

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97  DAGHESTAN           CAUCASUS, USSR                MID 19TH C.
The scorpions in the main border and the weave point an origin in the Daghestan area.  While the pattern of the field is completely apart from the designs of the area.  The snakes twisted around two trees, the apples and shapes resembling the Ark suggest it was made for someone of the Jewish faith.  Indeed, it bears a strong resemblance to a temple curtain in the Jewish Museum in Warsaw, Poland.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WHITE COTTON
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

98

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98  KUBA             CAUCASUS, USSR                        LATE 19TH C.
Caucasian weavers often employed a variety of designs to decorate the field of a rug.  The cloud bands, stars and flowers which fill the ivory field of this prayer rug emphasize this diversity.
WARP:  TAN WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN & WHITE WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

99

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99  DAGHESTAN             CAUCASUS, USSR                MID 19TH C.
This rug uses extremely fine wool and employes a softer color palette than usually occurs in Caucasian rugs.  The changing diagonal stripes of the border appear most often in Daghestan rugs.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WHITE WOOL
PILEl     WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

100

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100  CARABAUGH             CAUCASUS, USSR                       MID 19TH C.
This rug is the best example of the Persian influence in the southern Caucasus.  The turtle border, floral arrangements in the corners of the field, and the central medallion in a field of flowers all typify Persian design.  The cochineal or red dye in the main border is the red used in rugs from this district.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   COTTON
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

101

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101  CHICHI          CAUCASUS, USSR              LATE 19TH C.
Rugs of this proportion were often produced in the Caucasus.  The diagonal lines and rosettes in the main border, and the latch hook medallions in the field are typical of rugs produced by the Tchenchens.
WARP:  BROWN & WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   COTTON
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

102

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102  SUMAC        CAUCASUS, USSR                     MID 19TH C.
The stylized palmettes and other floral forms in this example are derived from northwest Persian carpets of the 17th and 18th centuries.
WARP:  TAN WOOL
WEFT:   TAN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

103

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103  SUMAC            CAUCASUS, USSR                   LATE 19TH C.
Rugs of this type were produced by overlapping flat stitches.  Pieces from Kuba are usually made with the basic colors seen in this exampe.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    BROWN WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY MR. C. G. BERWIND

CENTRAL

 

ASIAN

 

RUGS

104

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104  BELOUCH                  TURKMENISTAN                        LATE 19TH C.
“When creating the world, the Almighty made Belouchistan out of the Refuse” are the words of an old Persian proverb.  This arid land produced little vegetation for dye stuffs as reflected in the limited range of colors used in this rug.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    DARK BROWN WOOL
PILE;      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

105

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105  YOMUD KATCHLI               TURKMENISTAN, USSR                  LATE 19TH C.
The abundance of light blue and the diagonal rows of stylized guls  point to the origin of this rug among the Yomud tribe.  The simple diamond pattern in the outer border and the crosses on the inner border are simplified shapes used in the late 19th century.
WARP:  BROWN WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY HAROLD KESHISHIAN

106

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106  BELOUCH              TURKMENISTAN, USSR                  LATE 19TH C.
The pattern in the border and the field of this rug form a combination of typical Belouch design.  Wool treated in a corrosive brown dye was used instead of natural brown wool.  This caused the brown wool to wear more quickly leaving a sculptured effect throughout the rug.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

107

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107  ERSARI AFGHAN              TURKMENISTAN, USSR                          MID 19TH C.
The octagonal gul of the Ersari tribe has been stylized into a mere shape of different colors which fills the field of this rug.  The coarse weave seen here is typical of the Ersari tribe.
WARP:  GOAT HAIR
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY MR. AND MRS. ERNIE ROBERTS

108

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108  KAZIL AYAK          TURKMENISTAN, USSR                        LATE 19TH C.
The Turkomen who produced this rug were nomads prior to their conquest and settlement by the Russians in the 19th century.  The inclusion of cotton in the pile would indicate that this rug was produced after they had begun settled life.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:  WOOL DYED GREEN, BLUE OR RED
PILE:     WOOL AND BLEACHED COTTON
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

109

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109  KAZIL AYAK KATCHLI                        TURKMENISTAN, USSR                   MID 19TH C.
The Kazil Ayak are a sub-tribe of the Ersari.  The dark plum brown field and white stylized vine which surrounds the inner field are quite typical of the Katchli produced by this tribe.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    BROWN WOOL
PILE:       WOOL
LOANED BY MR. AND MRS. ERNIE ROBERTS

110

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110  TEKKI KATCHLI                      TURKMENISTAN, USSR                          MID 19TH C.
This is the most typical example of a Tekki Katchli rug.  Like most pieces of Turkoman weaving, this one includes a panel of completely different design woven across the bottom of the rug.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    BROWN WOOL
PILE:       WOOL
LOANED BY ROBERT KAHN

111

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111   TEKKI BAG                  TURKMENISTAN, USSR                             LATE 19TH C.
In small functional pieces like this bag, the weave was often finer than in carpets, and the designs, encased in rectangles, did not adhere to the “guls” used in larger carpets.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WHITE WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY DENNIS DODDS

112

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112  SALOR TENT BAG               TURKMENISTAN, USSR                  MID 19 C.
The six guls which fill the field of this rug are the gul of the Salor tribe, at one time the most powerful of all the Turkomen tribes.  The secondary gul of encased stars is also common to the Salor tribe.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    BROWN WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY MR. AND MRS. ERNIE ROBERTS

 

 

113

(Click on the image below to see a larger version.)

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113  SARYK                  TURKMENISTAN, USSR                           LATE 19TH C.
This Saryk rug shows the use of red-orange dye which has faded with the passage of time.  The bands at the top and the bottom of the rug are typical Turkomen designs which are not repeated in the border where they are usually found.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT    BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

114

Note: 114 was hung upside down in the exhibition.  You can see that (at the top here) there is an elem outside the border system.  We would have turned it but the long warps hanging up would have looked odd.

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114 TEKKI BAG                      TURKMENISTAN, USSR                      LATE 19TH C.
Small pieces, as this example, that are used daily were often more finely woven than large rugs.  The design and arrangement of the guls in the field on small pieces like this are often more stylized than the guls in the large rugs from the same tribe.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

115

(Click on the image below to see a larger version.)

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115  SARYK BAG FACE                 TURKMENISTAN, USSR                         MID 19TH C.
Turkoman weavers often used their finest wool in small functional pieces as this example.  The shape of the major guls in the field is the standard pattern for the Saryk Turkomen tribe.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    WHITE WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAM

116

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116  TEKKI KATCHLI            TURKMENISTAN, USSR                   LATE 19TH C.
This piece is unusual in two respects:  the four panels of the main field have been divided by vertical columns which use the same pattern as the main border, and the background color of the columns shows the use of a dyestuff commonly produced in India.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    BROWN WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY MR. AND MRS. ERNIE ROBERTS

117

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117   UZBEK                TURKMENISTAN, USSR                           LATE 19TH C.
The Uzbeks are a settled group who live among the Turkomen.  This proximity is shown in the stepped medallions of the field similar to Turkoman guls.  The color combination is typically Uzbek.  The rug was woven in three vertical pieces then sewn together along the outer edge of the field.
WARP:   BROWN WOOL
WEFT:    BROWN WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY MAURY BYNUM

118

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118  YOMUD                        TURKMENISTAN, USSR                           LATE 19TH C.
The “guls” or geometric designs which fill the field are known as Kepsi guls and are the most common feature of Yomud weaving.  The guls lying close together on the beige field only began to appear later in the 19th century.
WARP:  BROWN WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ROBERT KAHN

119

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119  TEKKI KATCHLI                      TURKMENISTAN, USSR                    LATE 19TH C.
Particularly noticeable in this piece is the absence of a mirhab, or prayer arch, and the generous use of white and yellow in the designs.  Notice that the bottom differs from the other three borders, a typical feature of these rugs.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    BROWN WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

120

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120  BELOUCH BAG FRONT                  BELOUCHISTAN, IRAN                        MID 19TH C.
The tiny stars which fill the field of this small bag front form a common Belouch design.  The soft, lustrous wool used in this piece is the kind used repeatedly by Belouch weavers.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

121

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121  YOMUCH KATCHLI                      TURKMENISTAN, USSR             LATE 19TH C.
Among the Turkomen the shape of the prayer arch varies from tribe to tribe.  It appears in this rug in the shaped of the head of a ram.  This design is repeated three times across the bottom of the rug,
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    WOOL DYED RED
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM. K. JERREHIAN

122

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122  PRAYER BELOUCH                     TURKMENISTAN, USSR                        LATE 19TH C.
No other weavers finished their rugs with the intricate patterns of weft brocade as the Belouch.  The square prayer arch and the placement of panels in the upper corners of the field represent a typical arrangement for Belouch prayer rugs.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   DARK BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

123

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123  BELOUCH                         TURKMENISTAN, USSR                     LATE 19TH C.
The hexagon containing stylized flower stalks in the field of this rug are similar to designs found in the weaving of other south Persian tribes.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   TAN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

124

(Click on the image below to see a larger version.)

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124  PRAYER BELOUCH                      TURKMENISTAN, USSR                   EARLY 20TH C.
The sheep of the Belouch produced a long, lustrous wool so evident in this example.  The use of a broader range of colors and the appearance of cotton in the pile point to its production after the turn of the century.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL & COTTON
LOANED BY ROBERT KAHN

 

125

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125  ERSARI KATCHLI                    TURKMENISTAN, USSR                      LATE 19TH C.
The patterns or designs in Katchli rugs vary among the Turkomen tribes, though the basic cross form of the central panel appears in each.  In thIs example, the placement of the triangular lattice-work in the central panel forms a typical Ersari pattern.
WARP:  BROWN WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY HAROLD KESHISHIAN

126

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126  TEKKE TENT BAG               TURKMENISTAN, USSR                  EARLY 19 C.
ALTHOUGH THIS PIECE LOOKS SIMILAR TO 112: AGAIN, THERE ARE SIX SALOR-TYPE MAIN GULS; IT WAS WOVEN BY A DIFFERENT TRIBE: THE TEKKE.  AT THE CENTER OF THESE MAJOR GULS IS A NEW ORNAMENT IN THE FORM OF A SMALL GUL.
THE MAGENTA (THE SMALL DIAMONDS SURROUNDING THE GULS IS SILK). BRILLIANT COLOR, EXQUISITE WORKMANSHIP.
WARP:   IVORY WOOL
WEFT:    LIGHT BROWN WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY MYRNA AND JOSEPH BLOOM

 

127

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127  BELOUCH                         BELOUCHISTAN              EARLY 20TH C.
The Belouch are a nomadic people who often come in contact with Turkomen and South Persian tribes.  The ornaments which fill the field of this rug how the influence of both these groups.  The colors and border designs are typical Belouch weaving.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY JOHN AKARD III

128

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128  TEKKE  KATCHLI            TURKMENISTAN, USSR                          EARLY 19TH C.
In the course of Turkomen history subtle changes took place in their weaving.  The use of the blue-green as seen in this rug ceased and the design elements filled increasingly more space.  The pattern of the main border was lost by the late 19th century.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    TAN WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY DENNIS DODDS

129

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129  KIBITKA BAND                       TURKMENISTAN, USSR                            LATE 19TH C.
This band is placed around the interior of a nomad tent where the side panels join the top.  It forms a covering for the seam and served a decorative purpose as well.
WARP:   BROWN WOOL
WEFT:    BROWN WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

130

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130 & 130A   TEKKE              TURKMENISTAN, USSR                 LATE 19TH C.
Among all the Turkomen tribes the Tekke used the finest wool to weave their rugs.  The geometric patterns presented here are the standard Tekke “guls’ used for centuries as their tribal insignia.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY PARVIS NEMATI

131

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131 & 131A  TEKKE            TURKMENISTAN, USSR                     MID 19TH C.
In comparing this rug with the following one, we can notice small but important changes in Tekke tribal weaving.  Repeated tracings of blue-green are used in this rug.  In the other Tekke from a later period, the colors used much more sparingly.  Here, the distance between the major and minor “guls” give a more spacious effect.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
LOANED BY DENNIS DODDS

132

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132 & 132A  TEKKE                    TURKMENISTAN, USSR                    LATE 19TH C.
The guls and th emajor border are typical of Tekke design.  The patterns at both ends are woven in pile instead of the usual flat weave.  A minor variation has been introduced  here with the introduction of magenta silk in some of the minor guls.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

133

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133 & 133A  YOMUD                  TURKMENISTAN              MID 19TH C.
The guls in the field are typical of the Yomud tribe.  The spacing between them and the fine weave point to the production of this rug in the mid 19th century,
WARP:  BROWN WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY MR. AND MRS. ERNIE ROBERTS

134

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134  BELOUCH                  BELOUCHISTAN, IRAN                          EARLY 20TH C.
The Belouch of Iran wandered far from their home in Iran, often entering the homeland of the Turkomen.  This rug shows the gul of the Salor Turkomen tribed in the field and the typical Belouch design in the main border, but the colors and weave show its Belouch origin.
WARP:  BROWN WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY HAROLD KESHISHIAN

 

TURKISH

RUGS

 

135

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135  PRAYER LADIK                             TURKEY                          EARLY 19TH C.
The weaver placed the date of 1820 in this rug.  The usual features of Ladik rugs are found in this example, including ewers or water pitchers above the prayer arch.  These ewers are symbols for the cleanliness necessary for prayer.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT”  BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM  K. JERREHIAN

136

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136  PRAYER LADIK                       TURKEY                                 MID 19TH C.
This rug incorporates the basic features of Ladik Prayer rugs.  Tulip stalks supporting the field below the prayer arch, the stepped prayer arch, or mirhab, adorned with latchhook designs, and a border composed of roses and tulips.  The speckled blue wool is the result of uneven dyeing and fading, an effect that is common in Turkish weaving.  The green above the prayer arch is an appropriate choice since it was Mohammed’s sacred color and therefore holy.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    BROWN WOOL
PILE:       WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

137

(Click on the image below to see a larger version.)

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137  PRAYER GHIORDEZ                      TURKEY                  EARLY 19TH C.
The distinct characteristics of Ghiordez Prayer rugs stand out in this example.  The clusters of fruits in the main border and the chrysanthemums which line the edge of the field beneath the prayer arch.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   TAN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

 

138

(Click on the image below to see a larger version.)

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138  PRAYER GHIORDEZ                    TURKEY                      MID 19TH C.
This rug was made in the city of Ghiordez, once known as Ghiordium, where Alexander the Great cut the Ghordian knot and fulfilled the prophesy of conquest of the known world.  The city gives its name to one of two knots used in weaving throughout the Middle East.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    COTTON
PILE:       WOOL AND COTTON
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

 

139

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139  PRAYER KULA                          TURKEY                    MID 19TH C.
Many rugs are characterized by their use of certain colors:  Kazak and Bergama rugs use the greatest amount of red, and in Ferrighans it is green.  Rugs woven in and around the city of Kula employ shades of blue and gold.  The floral stalk in the filed beneath the prayer arch is another common feature of these rugs.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL DYED YELLOW
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY HARRY AND LOUISE BOLSON

140

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140  MELES                         TURKEY                     MID 19TH C.
This rug exemplifies the best in old Meles weaving.  The leaf and vine pattern which fills the main border and field is a common motif among Meles weavers.  The deep red used here is typical of older rugs.  It became lighter as the dyeing process was shortened for commercial purposes.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WOOD DYED RED
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

141

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141  MELES                     TURKEY                          MID 19TH C.
The random decoration on the field of this rug presents a strong contrast to the uniform execution of the main border.  The entire range of Meles colors appears in this example.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL DYED RED
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

142

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142  TURKISH VILLAGE RUG                     TURKEY                     LATE 19TH C.
The facing hooks at each end of the field are a common design in Turkish weaving.  The browns, ochre and white seen in this rug are frequently together  in village weaving and reflect the inexpensive dyes which many villagers used out of necessity.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL DYED RED
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY MR. AND MRS. ERNIE ROBERTS

143

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143  PRAYER BERGAMA                      TURKEY                    LATE 19TH C.
The red, blue and white colors of this pile and the weaving technique used to produce this rug are the keys to its origin.  The furnishing of the read and blue end pieces with tassels furthers its identification a Bergama.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    WOOL DYED RED
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

144

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144  PRAYER BERGAMA                      TURKEY                        EARLY 19TH C.
Most rugs which are known as Bergama employ red as the most common background color.  Rugs of this pattern which employs white as a background color were produced until the late 19th Century.  Rugs of many different patterns bear the name Bergama, a city which served as a market place for the surrounding villages.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    WOOL DYED RED
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

145

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145  DERMAGI KULA              TURKEY                MID 19TH C.
The design of the field of this rug lies outside any earlier or traditional patterns of Turkish weaving.  While the border resembles Meles rug, the use of soft blue in such quantity is uncommon in rugs from this area.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:  WOOL DYED YELLOW
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

146

(Click on the image below to see a larger version.)

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146  TURKISH VILLAGE                       TURKISH                        LATE 19TH C.
The dark and limited range of colors chosen for the pile are unusual for rugs from this area.  The diamond-shaped field with a latchhook pattern shows the influence of rugs known specifically as Bergama.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   RED WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY MYRNA AND JOSEPH BLOOM

147

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147  PRAYER KONYA                   TURKEY                     LATE 19TH C.
At times small parts of the overall design of a rug are the first key to its origin.  In this example, the saw-tooth design used in the minor borders are indicative of rugs from this area of Turkey.   The pattern is continued in the flatwoven sides.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    WOOL DYED RED
PILE:       WOOL
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

148

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148  MELES                                         TURKEY                               MID 19TH C.
The stylized flowers in the borders and field of this rug are carnations, which are especially popular among weavers in Meles, but comon throughout Turkey.  The six basic colors seen in this example, red, pale yellow, blue, green, pale green and aubergine emphasize its place of origin.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL DYED RED
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

149

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149  PRAYER MELES                TURKEY                                MID 19TH C.
The shape of the prayer arch in the field of this rug is the most frequently occurring form in Meles rugs.  Although the dominance of color may change from rug to rug, those used here are found throughout Meles weaving.
WARP:   TAN WOOL
WEFT:    WOOL DYED RED
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

150

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150  TURKISH VILLAGE                           TURKEY                  LATE 19TH C.
The rosettes in the border and the shape of the prayer arch suggest this rug was made near the village of Ladik.  The absence of a separate panel beneath the field indicated it was produced late in the 19th Century.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY DAVID SHIHADEH

151

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151  BERGAMA                    TURKEY                      LATE 19TH C.
Bergama rugs are produced some five hundred miles from the village of Ladik.  The panels at the end of the field in this rug appear more commonly to support the field in Ladik prayer rugs.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    WOOL DYED RED
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

152

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152  PRAYER KIRSHEHIR                       TURKEY                            EARLY 19TH C.
This type of rug can be identified by three characteristics:  the multiple borders, the shape of the prayer arch, the shade of pistachio green found throughout.
WARP:  TAN WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY MYRNA AND JOSEPH BLOOM

153

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153  YUROK                          TURKEY                     MID 19TH C.
The long, soft wool of the nomadic sheep gives these rugs their heavy pile and softness.  The repeated pattern of hooked stars in the field is a common design among the products of these nomadic weavers.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    WOOL DYED RED
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY MR. AND MRS. ERNIE ROBERTS

154

(Click on the image below to see a larger version.)

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154  PRAYER GHIORDEZ                TURKEY                       EARLY 19TH C.
The graceful prayer arch and the columns that support it are a common shape in Ghiordez prayer rugs.  The main border of tulips and chrysanthemums is another type of design employed by Ghiordez weavers.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    WOOL DYED RED
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERRIHIAN

155

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155  PRAYER GHIORDEZ                   TURKEY                  EARLY 19TH C.
The flowers which fill the field, border and panels are chrysanthemums, a favorite design among Turkish weavers.  Like most Ghiordez prayer rugs, this rug is woven from the top to the bottom.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    COTTON
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

156

(Click on the image below to see a larger version.)

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156  PRAYER GHIORDEZ                 TURKEY                EARLY 19TH C.
This rug is typical of the prayer rugs from around Ghiordez. The shape of the prayer and the main border of seven stripes are characteristic of rugs from this area.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL DYED RED
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

157

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157  MELES                        TURKEY                         LATE 19TH C.
The simple floral forms and geometric elements mark this rug as an example of the more hurried production for commercial as well as personal use in the late 19th Century.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    WOOL DYED RED
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

158

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158  MAKRI                TURKEY                       MID 19TH C.
The side-by-side panel design in the field appears almost exclusively in rugs from the village in this area.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL DYED RED
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

159

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159  MELES                 TURKEY                 MID 19TH C.
The leaf pattern wrapping around the pole on each side of the field is found in old Turkish rugs dating back to the 16th Century.  Some typical colors of Meles rugs are used here, though not the full range of blue and green often found.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    WOOL DYED RED
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

160

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160  No design can be thought of as more typically Turkish than the hooks which face each other at each end of the center panel.  The inner border, aubergene in color, was produced by dyeing wool in madder and then in indigo.  Indigo dye acts as a preservative and explains the preservation of the band of color in this example.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL DYED RED
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY RALPH YOHE

161

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161  TURKISH VILLAGE               TURKEY                    LATE 19TH C.
Turkish village weaving often shows a variety of patterns which cannot be attributed to a particular area.  The shape of the prayer arch and columns, the red kelim at both ends ad the finish of the sides of this rug point to it origin in western Turkey
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    WOOL DYED RED
PILE:       WOOL
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

162

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162  YURUK                   TURKEY                        MID 19TH C.  
The wide range of color and the intricate pattern of the field placed this rug among the best of Yuruk weaving.  The finishe of the ends in banks of different colors is an unusual addition to these rugs.
WARP:   WHITE WOOL
WEFT:    WOOL DYED WITH AUBERGINE
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ROBERT KAHN

163

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163  BERGAMO                 TURKEY                     MID 19TH C.
Red, blue, green, yellow and white appear in older Bergamo rugs.  The aubergine in the center medallion is the result of natural dyes.  By the late 19th Century a synthetic dye which faded to white was used.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL DYED RED
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

164

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164   TURKISH VILLAGE                        TURKEY                     LATE 19TH C.
The rosette and tulip design in the main border is like those found in rugs produced around the village of Ladik.  The field is formed with two prayer arches, one inside the other.  This is an unusual arrangement in prayer rugs.
WARP:  COTTON
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY DAVID SHIHADEH

165

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165  YURUK             TURKEY                             MID 19TH C.
The nomads who wove this piece were probably from western Turkey.  The placement of the medallion in the field instead of a repeat design, and the use of a bright red weft suggest an affinity with Bergama rugs.  The the very long pile, border desigh and finish of the edges point to its origin among the Yuruk.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL DYED RED
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY ROBERT KAHN

166

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166  YURUK                       TURKEY                        MID 19TH C.
A very common Yuruk pattern appears in boh the field and border of this rug.  It is the range of color and the extremely fine weave that place this among the finest examples of Turkish nomad weaving.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL DYED RED
FILE:      WOOL
LOANED ANONYMOUSLY

167

(Click on the image below to see a larger version.)

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167  OUSHAK                 TURKEY                  EARLY 19TH C.
The large repeated compartments of the field show a similarity to the design of Persian rugs of earlier centuries when Persian weavers worked in Turkey.  The mottled blue and coarse weave point to its origin around Oushak.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   TAN WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY RALPH YOHE

168

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168  PRAYER YURUK             TURKEY              EARLY 19TH C.
Nomadic weavers worked with a narrow range of colors and simple designs to produce a striking effect in their rugs.  Because they lived in mountainous regions, their sheep produced long, luxurious wool which surpassed the quality of wool in other Turkish rugs.  The stepped arches in this prayer rug are common in Yuruk weaving.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

169

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169  This rug incorporates two features commonly found in Yuruk weaving: the lustrous wool and the selection of a limited number of colors expressed in simple design.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   BROWN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY STEPHEN BROADWELL

170

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170  YURUK                  TURKEY                  MID 19TH C.
Yuruk weavers often employed repeated hexagons in the field.  The simple designs and long, lustrous wool used for the piles are two standard features of nomadic weaving.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   TAN WOOL
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY RALPH YOHE

171

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171 & 171a  MELES          TURKEY             MID 19TH C.
This example is unusual because of a single border of flowers.  The field design departs from usual design with rows of repetitive flowers.
WARP:  WHITE WOOL
WEFT:   WOOL DYED RED
PILE:      WOOL
LOANED BY ARAM K. JERREHIAN

INDIA

 

172

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172  MUGHAL INDIA          EARLY 19TH C.
The finest of the Persian weaving tradition came to India in the 16th Century when Shah Akbar brought Persian weavers to that country.  The cartouches in the main border of this rug are Persian forms from that period while the tile pattern of white leaves repeated throughout the field is an Indian arrangement.  The red of the field and flowers comes from lac which is extracted from beetles cultivated in northern India.
WARP:  COTTON
WEFT:   COTTON DYED BLUE
PILE:     WOOL
LOANED BY DORIS LESLIE BLAU

This is the last rug in this very large exhibition.

I hope you have enjoyed it.

One last thing: Hali magazine, published its first issue in the Spring of 1978 and Dennis Dodds, who loaned some rugs to this exhibition, had been appointed the American Editor and submitted a piece on it.

Here is his report:

(Click these pages twice for larger versions.)

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Steve Price Steps Down at Turkotek.com

Posted in Uncategorized on August 15, 2020 by rjohn

Steve Price

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is stepping down from his 22-years of service as the editor, moderator and technical director of the internet discussion board, Turkotek.com. 

Filiberto Boncompagni, who has shared these responsibilities with Steve since 2001, will assume them and will most likely recruit a partner from the Turkotek management group, to which Chuck Wagner is a recent addition.

I have been a member of the Turkotek group, since its inception, and will at some point construct a post that details and recognizes Steve’s remarkable contributions to the textile world as he has headed this site.

At the moment, let me just say “Thank you, Steve.”

R. John Howe

 

Boralevi: Turkish Carpets in Italy

Posted in Uncategorized on April 11, 2020 by rjohn

On October 28, 2018, Alberto Boralevi

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gave a lecture in Istanbul on “(Antique) Turkish Carpets in Italy.”

This post is of a Powerpoint document that captured this lecture.  It is the second post, I have made of this sort.

Most readers will know that Alberto is a long-time textile dealer and scholar.  If you want a more detailed description of his background, you can find it at the beginning of the first of these posts which was on another lecture Alberto gave on Kaitag and related embroideries.

https://raymondj.wordpress.com/2020/03/27/alberto-boralevi-kaitags-and-other-embroidered-textiles-a-personal-view/

Alberto delivered this lecture during the annual Istanbul Carpet Week as part of the cultural program of that Fair. For this reason it is devoted only to Turkish Carpets, but the same research could be  extended to the Persian production as well as to other provenances. 

It is well known that carpet collecting is spread worldwide, particularly in the US where it is addressed to all kinds of carpets and related weavings, both early and more recent ones and particularly to the tribal productions.

In Italy the situation is different because this country was  one of the main sources of early  classical carpets since the beginning of collecting in the second half of the 19th c.

Even today, Italy has few but very important collections focused on the classical Turkish carpets that  were imported since the Renaissance times and even before. From Italy many of those carpets were re-exported to other countries in Europe and to the US, but something remained or was recently re-imported by a handful of illuminated new collectors.

You will notice occasional invitations to share this lecture with others.  Since Alberto is interested in increasing the number of people who see and can enjoy these lectures, you are invited to do so.

When you want to leave this lecture, look up and find a line of code at the top and click the small x on its right end.

I hope you enjoy this second instance of Alberto Boralevi’s knowledge and generosity.

Below is the first page, and a little more, of this lecture.  Click on “full screen” in the bottom right corner.

View this document on Scribd

Regards,

R. John Howe

Alberto Boralevi…Kaitags and other embroidered textiles: a personal view

Posted in Uncategorized on March 27, 2020 by rjohn

Alberto Boralevi, many readers will know,

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stems from a family of art dealers that have been in the antique carpet and textile business in Venice and Florence since the beginning of the twentieth century. In 1982, he discovered in the Pitti Palace of Florence the now famous Medici Cairene Carpets. For 15 years, from 1986 to 2001, Alberto Boralevi has run his Gallery, The Carpet Studio, in Florence. Since 2001 he works on a ‘by appointment only’ basis at the first floor of the historical Palazzo Frescobaldi, in the heart of Florence.

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Besides being an antique-textiles dealer, he has been scholarly researching in the field of antique carpets and textiles, publishing numerous articles, books and catalogues and working as consultant for museums such as the Museo Stefano Bardini in Florence, the Museo del Tessuto of Prato, the Azerbaijani Carpet Museum of Baku (Azerbaijan), as well as for important private collections.

As Chairman of the International Conference on Oriental Carpets (ICOC) Academic Committee, Alberto Boralevi organized the International Conferences on Oriental rugs in Milan (1999) , Istanbul (2007), Stockholm (2011) and Washington 2015 and 2018. He has organized the 5th International Symposium on Azerbaijani Carpets (ISAC 2017) and related events held in Baku 17-20 October 2017.

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 In June 2011, he received the Joseph V. McMullan Award for Stewardship and Scholarship in Islamic Rugs and Textiles from the Near Eastern Art Research Center of New York, being the second Italian and the first dealer to be honored with this prestigious acknowledgement.

He has given lectures and presented papers around the world in the latest 30 years. Among the books he published: Sumakh. 1986; L’Ushak Castellani-Stroganoff, 1987; From the Near West (on Sardinian Rugs and textiles), 1997; Oriental Geometries. Stefano Bardini the antique rug, 1999. He was also co-author and chief consultant of Antique Ottoman Rugs in Transylvania, edited by Stefan Ionescu,2005.

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In a recent exchange, Alberto indicated to me that he has a number of lectures he has given, captured (words and images) in Powerpoint documents.  He has, generously indicated that I can post some of these lectures on my Eccentric Weft site so that more can access and enjoy them.

And, this post is the first of these efforts.  It is a lecture that Alberto gave on September 10, 2019, at the Museum der Volker in Schwaz, Austia,

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Image result for Museum der Volker

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on Kaitag and other embroidered textiles. Click the link below to access his lecture which is a Powerpoint document (click on the full page version to get rid of the advertising). 

When you get to the end of it just click out of Powerpoint.  You should come back to this page and get to read the brief ending remarks but if that doesn’t happen, just consider the post complete.

https://www.scribd.com/presentation/453389507/Kaitag-A-Personal-View

 I hope you enjoyed and learned from it, as I did.

This may be the first of several posts of this kind.  Alberto has some other lectures he is willing to share.

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I thank him for letting me know that these lectures exist and being willing to work with me to fashion these posts.

‘Til next time,

R. John Howe

Richard Laursen on What Analysis of Dyes in Textiles Can Tell You and What It Cannot

Posted in Uncategorized on June 17, 2019 by rjohn

On April 27, 2019, Richard Laursen,

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a research chemist, emeritus at Boston University, gave a program to members of the International Hajji Baba Society, here at the Textile Museum in Washington, DC,, describing what analysis of dyes used in textiles can tell you and what it cannot.

Richard gave an illustrated lecture and a virtual version of that follows:

You can click on any image is this virtual version to get a somewhat larger version.

I will sometimes cue you to do that.

Slide 1

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Slide 2

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Slide 3

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The yellow ovals indicate where the bulk of the textiles came from.  This is particularly true for ancient textiles because textiles are organic materials, which are usually destroyed (eaten) by fungi and other microorganisms found in soil and elsewhere.  All living organisms require water and moderate temperatures to thrive, so ancient textiles are generally found in arid locations and in some tombs where they are not in contact with soil and/or water.  Therefore, most of the textiles we have analyzed come from arid parts of Asia and the Andes of South America.

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Slide 4

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The circles indicate where some of our samples have come from.  I will talk about the red ones.

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Slide 5

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Slide 6

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First I will discuss the analytical methods we use.

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Slide 7

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There are two basic approaches to textile dye analysis.  In method A, some sort of light is shown on the textile and the reflected light is analyzed.  In method B, a small sample of the textile is removed, and extracted to remove the dye.  The extract containing the dye is analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which separates the components in the dye, and allows spectrometric and mass analysis of each.

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Slide 8

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This slide outlines the components of the analytical system we use.  The sample is loaded onto the HPLC column, through which appropriate solvents are pumped to elute (wash) the separated components out.  Each component is then analyzed by a Diode Array Detector (DAD) and by a Mass Detector (MD).

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Slide 9

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The lower panel shows an elution profile, which is obtained after the separated components have passed through the DAD, only.  Each peak represents a dye component—in this case of an extract of the yellow dye from pagoda tree leaves.

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Slide 10

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From this type of analysis (method B) one can provide three types of information that characterize a particular dye component: (1) the retention time, which gives information about the polarity of each component, (2)  the UV/Visible spectrum, which gives much information about the color and the class of the dye component, and (3) the molecular mass (molecular weight) of the compound.  With three types of information, it is generally possible to identify a compound.  In addition, the profile or pattern of compounds acts as sort of a “fingerprint” often allowing one to identify the plant or animal the dye came from.  None of this possible using method A.

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Slide 11

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Slide 12

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One of the first textiles we analyzed came from fragments from Cherchen, a former village in the Taklamakan Desert region in Xinjiang, China.  This is indicted by a yellow oval.

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Slide 13

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This is an enlargement of the Taklamakan region.  The yellow lines indicate portions of the old Silk Road that linked Europe and China.  Traders in ancient times had to travel between oases either north or south of the desert.  Cherchen was one of the oasis towns.

 

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Slide 14

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During the 1990s, archaeologists discovered, in a cemetery near Cherchen, the mummified remains of a man who had been buried nearly 3000 years ago.  He was not buried in a tomb, but in a hole in the ground, but out of contact with the soil, and so he desiccated rather than decomposed.

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Slide 15

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Near the Cherchen Man were some textiles, which also survived nearly three millennia.  Analysis of one of the yellow dyes revealed a dye compound that had never been reported before. 

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Slide 16

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The structure of this dye remained a mystery for several years, but eventually we deduced that it is probably the yellow flavonoid, luteolin glucuronide.

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Slide 17

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All green plants also contain flavonoids (whose function may be to protect the chlorophyll in the plants from photo-oxidation; over 8,000 flavonoids have been chemically characterized so far), so dyers often used local plants as a source of yellow dyes—provided the plants contained sufficient concentrations of the flavonoids.  It turns out that one of the plants that grows in profusion in the Taklamakan region is certain species of poplar tree.  Two of these are Populus euphaticus and Populus pruinosa that have deep roots that allow them to grow along riverbeds that are filled with water from nearby glaciers in the spring but are dry in summer.  The leaves of both these species of poplar tree contain luteolin glucuronide, so they may have been used to produce the yellow dye seen.

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Slide 18

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We also found the same yellow dye in a sample (from the Victoria and Albert Museum in London) from Loulan, a former village in the Taklamakan region (see slide13).

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Slide 19

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This slide shows profiles of a yellow-green dye (flavonoid + indigo) from the V&A Loulan fragment and of an extract of Populus pruinosa, which are very similar.  The peaks at < 5 minutes are “garbage” peaks and can be ignored.

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Slide 20

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During the past 25 years or so, archaeologists in Iran have found the mummified remains of 5 or 6 men in the Chehrabad salt mine near Zanjan, Iran, that dates back to about 400 BC.  Apparently these are the remains of miners who were killed when earthquakes brought the roof down on them.  Other organic artifacts were found, too.  These objects (including the miners) were well preserved because not only was the mine dry, but also because salt is a good preservative.  These artifacts are interesting also because they belonged to poor people, rather than potentates who were often buried in tombs wearing special clothing, etc., so the dyes in these objects give a picture of what average/poor people were wearing.

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Slide 21

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The object we analyzed was a multi-colored belt of some sort.  The left-hand side of this slide shows part of the original object, and the right-hand inset, the front and back views of the (relatively huge) sample we received.  [One can also see in the original where our sample was cut out.]. The blue and red colors were from indigo and madder (Rubia tinctorum), respectively].

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Slide 22

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This slide shows in the background, the Chehrabad salt mine.  In the yellow dye we found an unusual flavonoid sulfate (see inset).  It turns out that this compound is found in many species of tamarisk, which is one of the few plants that flourish in dry, saline locales.  We suspect that this may have been used to make the yellow dye, because it was readily available locally and the people who used it probably were too poor to buy something more expensive.  Flavonoid sulfates have been reported in only one other dye plant—in Peru.

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Slide 23

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Slide 24

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Horyu-ji is a Buddhist temple founded in 607 AD and is the oldest wooden building in Japan.  A number of textiles have been stored there for centuries.  In the seventh century, the Tang Dynasty, in China, was close to its cultural apex and many things were imported into Japan from China.

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Slide 25

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A number of textiles were stored at Horyu-ji.  Apparently, sometime in the late 19th C or early 20th C, monks at Horjyu-ji were hard up for money and sold fragments of some of their textiles to collectors.  Some of these fragments eventually made their way to the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.  This was fortuitous because nowadays all textiles (and other objects) from ancient temples and tombs are considered property of the Imperial Family of Japan and removing samples for analysis is absolutely forbidden.  However, the MFA fragments left Japan before this ruling and are not subject to the aforementioned rule.  This slide shows several fragments, but the one of interest is that outlined in the yellow oblong box.  Unfortunately, the back side of the object is shown and not the front.

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Slide 26

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If that fragment is turned over, it can be seen that the pattern on it matches closely the pattern on a larger Horyu-ji textile that is currently in a museum in Japan and is shown in a book by Yoshioka.  The fiber is silk.

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Slide 27

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This is seen better if the fragment is superimposed on the larger textile.

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Slide 28

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We then analyzed several colored threads from the MFA fragment and found the following:

Black   Indigo (heavy dyeing gives a very dark, almost black color)

Yellow from the grasses, Arthraxon hispidus or Miscanthus sinensis

Green  Indigo (blue) + A. hispidus or M. sinensis (yellow)

Red      Madder (Rubia akane)

Since both Rubia akane and Arthraxon hispidus are now used only in Japan, we initially deduced that the textile threads (this textile was woven with colored threads) had been made and dyed in Japan.

Interestingly, the black threads in the Yoshioka textile seem to be more worn than in the MFA sample, and the green is more pronounced in the MFA fragment.  This is consistent with the presence of indigo, which tends to coat the surface of fibers and sometimes wears off.  The same phenomenon is seen with Levi’s jeans, in which the blue indigo rubs off at the wear points (e.g., knees).

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Slide 29

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The foregoing suggested that the textile threads had been dyed in Japan.  However, when my colleague, Chika Mouri, who has background in traditional Japanese medicine, consulted the Xinxiu Bencao, the first  official Materia Medica of China, which was originally written in the 6th C, she found that Arthraxon hispidus  had been used as a yellow dye in China before Horyu-ji was even constructed.  Furthermore, in our own research we had found species of madder from China that had characteristics of Rubia akane which is found primarily in Japan.  Therefore, the textile we analyzed could have been made in China.  In fact, it probably was, because in those days, China was considered to be sort of the “motherland” for Japan and many items that were considered to be of high quality were imported from China. Two of the more important of these were silk and the writing system.

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Slide 30

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The association of Arthraxon hispidus with Japan comes from the fact that, even today, a yellow dye is produced from this plant only on the island of Hachijo-jima.  “Hachi” means 8 in Japanese and it is the 8th in a string of islands south of Tokyo.  Hachijo-jima itself is was formed by two now-dormant volcanoes.  The dye is called “kihachijo” (literally, “yellow of Hachijo).

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Slide 31

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Kihachijo is used to dye silk a muted yellow color, along with a reddish brown and a black color, which are woven to make (expensive) kimonos and other products (see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fqjbat5bILI).

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Slide 32

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This slide shows two of those kimonos. [One of the volcanoes can be seen in the background of the un-cropped photo below.]

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Slide 33

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Slide 34

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Slide 35

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Slide 36

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There are three commonly used species of madder in the world today.  These are easily differentiated by HPLC.  All contain the red dye, purpurin, but differ in their content of alizarin or other red components.

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Slide 37

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This slide shows an approximation of the growth ranges of the three species of madder.  Rubia tinctorum is the species most commonly seen in Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia, including Xinjiang.  There is sort of a natural barrier formed by the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Himalayas that seems to separate the growth ranges of Rubia tinctorum (to the west) and Rubia cordifolia (to the east and south).  Rubia akane is found in Japan, though it or related species are also found in China. 

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Slide 38

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There is only one natural blue dye—indigo.  It is produced by many plants, but at present there is no way to determine which plant produced it.  It is like table sugar: there is no way to tell whether sucrose was made from sugar cane or sugar beets.

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Slide 39

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Slide 40

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Slide 41

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This story starts in Xinjiang, China.  In 2004, my daughter and I were on a post-conference tour in Xinjiang and stopped at a Kazakh yurt that actually was a sort of luncheonette.

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Slide 42

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During that lunch, we happened to be seated next to a fellow named Guy Petherbridge (on the right; my daughter is on the left), who was head of Heritage Central Asia, a U.N. organization headquartered in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. 

This turned out to be fortuitous because we had already explored parts of the Silk Road in China, to the east, and I thought it would be interesting to look at the silk road from the west.  So the next year we went to Iran, Turkey and Uzbekistan.  Because Guy Petherbridge was my only contact in Uzbekistan, I wrote to him, and he kindly arranged for us to visit, Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara and the Ferghana Valley, complete with a car, driver and interpreter.

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Slide 43

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One of the places we visited was the Samarkand Museum of Applied Art, where we found, in the storeroom, a very nice suzani, which, it turned out, had been dyed only with natural dyes.

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Slide 44

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Later we received, from a collector of suzanis in Germany, a sample of thread which had been dyed with an insect dye (cochineal), which is distinguished by a large carminic acid peak.  This was probably an Old World species of cochineal, rather than Mexican cochineal, but it was not possible from these data to be sure.

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Slide 45

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The same collector also sent a red thread from an Ottoman embroidery that had been dyed with madder (Rubia tinctorum), which could be distinguished by the presence of alizarin.

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Slide 46

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A yellow thread from a third sample had been dyed with yellow larkspur (Delphinium semibarbatum), a very common source of yellow in Central Asia.

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Slide 47

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Most species of Delphinium are blue, but these are yellow.

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Slide 48

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Slide 49

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We also visited the Tashkent Museum of Applied Arts.  This had been the home of a government official in the late 1920s and was probably a private residence before that.

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Slide 50

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The first gallery in this museum contained a number of suzanis, the very first one being that shown here.  Shown here are Svetlana Osipova (facing the suzani) who arranged the visit, her husband (on the left) and a museum attendant on the right.  The pair of legs, showing, below the suzani belong to the Museum Director, who was clipping off, using an enormous pair of scissors, loose embroidery threads for us to analyze. 

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Slide 51

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This slide shows the suzani, some of the threads analyzed and the results of the analysis.  Although a few of the threads had been dyed with natural dyes, most of them were dyed with synthetic dyes, which means that this object was embroidered after 1865, when the first dye was synthesized by Perkin.  This also means that this suzani was not made, as claimed, during the first half of the 19th C.  In retrospect, the purple color that is predominant in this suzani should have been a tip-off, because that shade of purple cannot be made using natural dyes.

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Slide 52

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We also analyzed the purple color from another suzani in the museum shop.  This slide shows that the dye was a complex mixture of colorants.  Visible spectra of some of them (peaks A, B and C) all have the same shape (a peak with a shoulder on the left) that is characteristic of triphenylmethine dyes, but have different shades of purple.

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Slide 53

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We do not know precisely what compounds these are, but they are very similar to fuschin and ethyl violet, which were among the earliest commercially available synthetic dyes.

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Slide 54

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The synthesis of the purple dye, mauve, by Perkin set off a revolution, resulting in the synthesis of hundreds of dyes by the end of the 19th C.  The “tree” shown here indicates some of them.  Note that the triarylmethine dyes were among the earliest.

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Slide 55

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The synthesis of mauve also set off a revolution in the fashion industry.  Everyone (women, at least) wanted mauve-colored garments, such as the gown on the left.  This included Queen Victoria, although the color of the gown shown (at the right) in the recent TV series, Victoria, is not quite right (nor is the coffee cup and truck behind).

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Slide 56

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Slide 57

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Slide 58

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I would like to acknowledge the two people who did most of the laboratory work described here.  On the right is Xian Zhang, my last PhD student, who initiated the textile dye analysis project and developed the early methods; and Chika Mouri, who came to me from Japan with a Ph.D. in traditional Japanese medicine and from whom I learned a lot about plants during the two years she spent with me in Boston.

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Slide 59

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This picture has nothing to do with the foregoing material, but it is an example of the interesting things that can happen when traveling.  Before going to Uzbekistan, my daughter, Sarah, and I spent nearly a week in Iran.  Late one afternoon while being driven along a highway in Isfahan (the home of Hajji Baba), our host, Sadegh Miri (https://www.instagram.com/sadegh_miri_photography/?hl=en) pointed out a little hill ahead of us on the otherwise flat landscape.  “There’s an old Zoroastrian fire tower up there,” he said.  Sarah, an art historian, said, “Let’s take a look at it.”  So we pulled over and clambered up the hill, with Sarah in the lead, despite her long Iranian-style manteau.  When Sadegh and I got to the top, we discovered Sarah being interviewed and filmed by two men.  It turned out that they worked for Lebanon TV and were interviewing whoever came up the hill.  They were probably as surprised to see Americans there as we were to see them.

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Richard took questions and brought his session to a close.

I want to thank Richard for coming to give this important program, and for working with me after to fashion this virtual version of it.

Michael Kaplan and Jeff Krauss produced this program.  Thanks to Tom Goehner for arranging the use of the Textile Museum’s Myers Room for this session.

A number of people asked me whether there was to be a virtual version of Richard’s program, and here it is.

Enjoy. 

‘Til next time,

R. John Howe

Here is some additional information on Richard’s background, interests and career:

Richard Laursen obtained his BS (1961) and PhD (1964) degrees in chemistry from the University of California at Berkeley, and the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, respectively. After two postdoctoral years at Harvard University, he joined the chemistry faculty at Boston University, where he conducted research in protein chemistry for about 35 years. Following sabbatical leave in the Sherman Fairchild Conservation Center at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, he turned his attention to the analysis of natural dyes in textiles of historical interest—in particular development of new techniques for extraction of dyes from textile specimens and their analysis. For more information, see also: http://www.bu.edu/chemistry/faculty/laursen/ and (for publications) http://www.bu.edu/chemistry/faculty/laursen/publications/ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Penny and Tim Hays Open Their “Just in from the East” Gallery

Posted in Uncategorized on April 4, 2019 by rjohn

Penny and Tim Hays,

have been serious collectors, primarily of Balkan textiles for a number of years.

Until recently, they were active members of the textile collector community here in the Washington, D.C. area.  They are serious collectors, traveling frequently to the Balkans, visiting museums, and researching the literature vigorously (including translating obscure texts).  One of their initial acts as collectors was to purchase an entire collection of Manastir kilims.  More recently, they have begun to consider Anatolian material.

In retirement, they have been lured to Florida.

They bought a home there and have added a gallery to display their collection.  They purchased this specific property because it had an 800 square foot space that could be converted to a display gallery.

Last month they put out a kind of invitation to the opening of this gallery to a selected audience.  It read like this:

“Tim Hays here. We have met and spoken on several occasions in DC, Stockholm, and Istanbul. We are the dotty collectors who specialize in Balkan kilims. We are as Christian Erber designated us, the Sarkoy people. Although our focus is and was on the elusive Manastir Kilim.

“We collect a bit more widely than that, including Anatolian and Syrian textiles. Our primary focus, however, remains Balkan folk and workshop weaving. We have pursued this subject for 12 years and since our recent retirement and move from DC to Florida we have been able to achieve our long term goal of creating a gallery to display more of our collection. In addition with help from fellow collectors and friends such as Davut Mizrahi, Erhard Stoebe (Vienna), Jaap van Beelen (Bulgaria), and Andy Dailey (late of Tirana and now residing in Cairo); I believe we have accumulated a much better understanding of the Balkan weaving traditions of the Ottoman Period to the present. Many dealers such as Omer Bozdag, Muhammet Solak, Seref Ozen, and Mehmet Cetinkaya provided their knowledge and experience.

“We will be having a small reception on 9 March here in Sarasota Florida to mark the opening of our 800 square foot display space, housed in a converted garage and workshop. We will have much more room to showcase our woven art and conduct our research.

“We plan to produce a catalog/monograph displaying some of our interesting pieces and documenting some of the historical and ethnographic data we have accumulated on this poorly understood and under documented group of weavings.

“Our renovation project also includes a small beer garden and kilim washing area. What could be more apropos?

“In any case, we want to share our pleasure at the completion of this goal.”

And they did.  They report that about a dozen friends and neighbors attended. They, also, separately hosted Roger and Claire Pratt, friends from their rug travels, and fellow collectors. 

This post is intended to let you experience aspects of this opening.

We’re approaching the house.

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There’s a drive way with the gallery at its end.  This the front of the gallery, formerly a garage and workshop. gallery.  Notice the appropriate Hapsburg yellow color of the building. Just right for a Balkan collection.

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There are grounds with a palm tree and the former caddy shack and bunk house of an adjoining golf course behind it.

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There is a privacy fence with a few textiles displayed on it.

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And a covered entrance area with what Tim calls his “beer garden.”

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Let’s go in.  We’re going to walk around inside without focusing on particular textiles, just to get a feel of the place.  We’ll look at and speak to individual pieces later.

Here we are going in the door.

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We look around.

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There have to be books and shelves for stacks of smaller pieces.

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Here are a few piece closer without singling anything out yet.

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These pieces, above and below are hanging on a Amish clothes drying rack, made locally.  They use this rack to display small Balkan, Central Asian, and African textiles.

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Above is an East Bulgarian Prayer Kilim, used by Sunni Muslims in the area of Shumen. These narrow kilims were used for individual prayer in one of the many mosques formerly active in the town of Shumen . Only the great Tulip Period Tombul  (plump) Mosque remained active in 2018. Although a new medresse is under construction in the grounds of the former Tombul complex. Built with donations from the Turkish Government and Bulgarian Muslim Council.

Below, left partial image is of a Greek pillow cover from the town of Florina in Thrace. Although this cover is clearly in the style of a Muslim yastik or posh, to the makers of this cover who are Greek Orthodox, the design symbolizes aspects of the Holy Trinity.

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Above are two small Shah Savan personal bags for precious items. Khorjin format from ca. 1900.

Below is a recently acquired East Bulgarian Manastir kiim with yellow field and pale rose ground. Rather late example with West Bulgarian motifs in the field (we’ll treat this again, later).

We are showing this atop a late 19th Century Konya kilim fragment. We are making good use of this work table to study and prepare pieces for the collection.

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Here are some individual pieces with descriptions.

PT1

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PT 1 is a very rare red field blue ground Manastir Kilim with pronounced West Anatolian design motifs and influences (including finger or comb motifs).

Most Manastir kilims have yellow or rose red fields. This one is one of four with a blue ground. One is in our collection and three are in an important Turkish collection. PT1 was published previously in Hali Magazine.

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PT2

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PT2 is a medium-size Avunya kilim from Western Anatolia. We acquired this example from an Israeli dealer because of the obvious affinities to Bulgarian Manastir kilims. Perhaps this is an example of Balkan Muhajir production in Anatolia. Muhajir began returning to Anatolia as early as 1855. 

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PT3

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PT3 is a one of a pair of Pirot West Bulgarian Group kilim draperies or possibly divan covers in the kostenice (lions paw) design with a single side border in the Queen’s Sleeve pattern. These designs were part of the regular repertoire of the Serbian weavers active in the workshops of Pirot and intended for the home or European Market after 1860.

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PT4

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PT4 is a Manastir kilim with yellow field and rose ground in a most striking design incorporating West Bulgarian motifs in a tradition East Bulgarian Prayer format.

We believe these pieces were produced by heterodox Bektashi or Alevi Muslins in Eastern Bulgaria. They are examples of idiosyncratic home weaving for personal use, probably as devotional wall hangings.

There are many Sufi tekkes (Prayer halls) scattered about the countryside in Eastern Bulgaria.

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PT5

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PT5 is a fragment of a Chiprovtsy kilim in the 18th Century Bakamsky Medallion pattern. NW Bulgaria.

Very old fragment of the oldest known type.

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PT6

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PT6 is a Pirot divan cover from the mid 19th Century.

A rare survival of a infrequently seen type. Nice saturated colors.

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PT7

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PT7 is a fragment of a Central Anatolian Kilim with camel hair and nicely saturated colors.

Sometimes fragments fit perfectly into those awkward blank spots in a display.

Probably mid-19th Century.

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PT8

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PT8 is a This is a South Bulgarian looped pile tulu Rug.

In Bulgaria, as elsewhere in the Balkans, local people make tulu, felt rugs, and semi-felted covers just as in Anatolia. This Bulgarian tulu is very similar to those produced in the Konya-Karapinar area.

Tim uses a small Vintage Turkish animal feeding or water trough, upholstered with a vintage kilim fragment, as a stool. 

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PT9

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PT9 is a large detail of a Syrian aba or robe with a Kufic inscription of the phrase Masallah (as God wills).

Silk from Damascus or Hama.

Early 20th Century.

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PT10

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PT10 is a fragmentary Mid-19th Century Aydin (West Anatolia) kilim.

Published in Faszination Kelim 2006 Awed Tomm Collection.

Again demonstrating how a work table facilitates textile display and study.

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PT11

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Above is a two-panel Balikesir kilim from NW Anatolia.

I was inclined to label this an example of Yuncu weaving, now I am not certain.

In any case, we find these open field kilims with classic blue and red colors to be very striking.

Similar to pieces in the Josephine Powell Collection.

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PT12

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You’ve seen PT12 above.  As we said, it’s a recently acquired East Bulgarian Manastir kiim with yellow field and pale rose ground.

Rather late example with West Bulgarian motifs in the field.  You can see those better in the details below.

Details of PT12.

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PT13

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Comment: A fragment from an 18th Century Cappadocian kilim. We had this piece conserved with some of the numerous holes and lacunae backed with appropriately colored linen. We think it provides a better overall impression of its striking colors. Some of my kilim friends do not agree.You can decide for yourself.

 

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PT14

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PT14 is a lovely Central Anatolian fragment of a double niche kilim with saturated colors. The color quality suggests this example is relatively early.

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PT15

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PT15 is a Syrian or Lebanese wall hanging or cover.  This may have been intended for use as a bochke or wrapper for personal items or gifts.  The colors displayed show how well silk can take dyes.

Early 20th Century or earlier.

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PT16

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PT16 is a South Toros Mountains area cuval cover with dazzle stripes and rows of Memling Guls. White may be cotton.

Early 20th Century??

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PT17

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Comment: Prayer Kilim from Razgrad in Eastern Bulgaria.

Such kilims and others like it from the town of Shumen, are confirmed to be products of the Sunni Muslim people of these two important former Ottoman garrison towns.

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PT18

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Comment:  Nearly complete camel cover kilim from Central Anatolia. Great border design and colors. Possibly from the area of Karapinar. These long kilims of with lengths, of 3.5 meters or more, were made as load covers used during migration.

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PT19

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PT 19 is a fragment of a Cappadocian Kilim with well saturated colors and a graphic design.

Mid-18th Century or earlier 

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PT20

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PT20 is a Manastir Rug 19th Century from Macedonia.

Manastir rugs are the only pile weavings we know to have been produced in the Ottoman Balkans prior to the end of the 19th Century.

See Sonny Berntsson’s article in Hali 112 for a definitive assessment.

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PT21

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PT21 is a Central Anatolian kilim Fragment (center) and Afshar pack or animal strap (far right).

One advantage to having lived in Europe is the opportunity it presents the collector to obtain attractive examples of textiles not seen in the US. 

Is the item below an instance of this?  Make explicit.

This pack strap was shown in an exhibition of Persian nomadic straps and bands at a small dealers shop in Berlin.

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PT22

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Comment:  This kilim is the piece that began our interest in and fascination with Balkan weaving.

This is a 3rd Quarter 19th Century Pirot prayer kilim. It’s the first Balkan piece we collected and was acquired at the 2007 Istanbul ICOC Dealers Fair.

Although we believe such kilims were intended for the Ottoman market, the weavers in the workshops of Pirot Serbia were Orthodox Christians.

The fine weaving, colors, and format are typical of the West Bulgarian weaving tradition.

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No one seems to know the significance of the confronting fish at the bottom of the kilim. We find this feature most striking.

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PT23

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PT23 is a another Cappadocian kilim fragment. 

Probably 18th Century.

The colors in this example are intense and give the piece great visual appeal. 

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PT24

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Comment:  Late 19th Century Konya kilim half.

Previously published in Faszination Kelim Arwed Tomm Collection 2012.

Graphic design but later color palette.

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PT25

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PT25 is an interesting and attractive suzani type embroidery.

Unfortunately we lost the tag which had been attached which indicted its provenance.

But we displayed along with other small textiles on a great standing display panel purchased for the gallery.

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PT26

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Comment:  Attractive Kurdish grain bag with good colors and a striking back side.

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Back of PT26.

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PT27

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Comment:  Kirgiz or Uzbek felt ok bosh (tent pole cover). With typical archaic decoration.

This is one remnant from our earlier collecting of Central Asian textiles. Complete with braided horse hair decoration.

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PT28

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PT28 is a Incredible detailed small Oltenian (SW Romanian)  kilim table cover or display piece.

The ultra fine weaving and the small size of this piece are hard to appreciate. The weave is like a man’s shirt and the piece is 72 X 50 cm. . A masterwork on small scale by a master weaver.

We have other Oltenian kilims in 2X2 Meter size with these same folk story images

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PT29

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Comments: Yomud Igdir Turkmen small bag with glowing colors and glossy wool.

Mid-19th Century.

 

PT30

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Comment:  This cushion cover, a large yastik size weaving is from Florina in Northern Greece (Thrace).

Although the textile’s form and design are very similar to those made by Muslim people in Macedonia, Bosnia, and Albania; the Greek weavers are Orthodox Christians. The Greek weavers attribute Christian religious meaning to this originally Islamic pattern. In fact, the design symbolizes the Holy Trinity in their belief system.

A good example of cultural borrowing in an ethnically mixed region.

This piece from the period 1920-1930 and the weaver chose synthetic versions of the original color scheme.

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PT31

 

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Above is an East Bulgarian Prayer Kilim, used by Sunni Muslims in the area of Shumen.

These narrow kilims were used for individual prayer in one of the many mosques formerly active in the town of Shumen .

Only the great Tulip Period Tombul  (plump) Mosque remained active in 2018. Although a new medresse is under construction in the grounds of the former Tombul complex. Built with donations from the Turkish Government and Bulgarian Muslim Council.

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PT32

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Above is a kilim weave banner for the accession of the first King of Yugoslavia in about 1920.

Adaption of the Royal Banner of the King of Serbia.

This is the banner if King Peter I. Used on balconies on public occasions or to decorate official spaces.

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PT31

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This is our favorite Manastir Kilim of the yellow field prayer kilim type.

Typical East Bulgarian colors including woad blue.

This piece is slightly larger than most we see add gives a rather more Anatolian impression than most. 19th Century East Bulgaria.

Very lovely central arch filled with protective amulets.

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So that’s the opening of this personal gallery.  An interesting idea.  Not many of us go this far.  I’m of the “pushpin” sort using the walls of our apartment.

I’m not sure that Penny and Tim

are great wine drinkers, but I’ll lift one here in honor of this occasion.

Tim and Penny say, “We have a standing invitation to all readers to come for a visit. We will be changing displays as the mood strikes us.  Our email address is: berlintimh@mac.com

Good work, folks,

R. John Howe